Anti-proliferative and Apoptosis Induction Activities of Curcumin on Leishmania major

Journal Article
, Maha H. Elamin 1*, Ebtesam Elolayan. , Rewaida Abdelgaber . 2021
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Revista Argentina de Microbiología
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Abstract Leishmaniasis is a major vector-borne disease triggered by an obligate intracellu-lar protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania and transmitted by the bite of phlebotominefemale sand flies. This parasite causes a wide range of human diseases, from localized self-healing cutaneous lesions to fatal visceral infections. The aim of this study was to investigatethe cytotoxic, antiproliferative, and apoptotic effects of curcumin on Leishmania major pro-mastigotes (MHOM/SA/84/JISH) and to assess these effects on the cell cycle of promastigotes.The MTT colorimetric assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity and proliferation of promastig-otes. Additionally, flow cytometry was used to analyze the cell cycle. The Annexin V/propidiumiodide staining technique followed by flow cytometry was used to study the cell death inducedby curcumin. In this study curcumin showed a potent antileishmanial effect, exhibiting cytotox-icity against L. major promastigotes. At 80 M, the survival in curcumin treated promastigotesreached 22%; however, the median lethal concentration of curcumin (LC50) was 35 M. The drugexerted its cytotoxic effect by inducing apoptosis. Curcumin-induced cell death in promastig-otes reached 82.5% at 80 M concentration. In addition, curcumin delayed the cell cycle in theS-phase inhibiting cell proliferation. Thus, curcumin was shown to be effective against L. majorpromastigotes. Therefore, curcumin merits further research studies to demonstrate its efficacyin treating cutaneous leishmaniasis.