Physiological and Histopathological Effects of Artemether in Wistar Rats. Current Science International

Journal Article
, Maha H. Elamin and Ethar . 2019
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Post doc research
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Current Science International
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Publication Abstract

Artemisinin and its derivatives are the most rapidly effective antimalarial drugs. One of the derivatives, artemether is the methyl ether of dihydroartemisinin formulated for treatment of uncomplicated multi-drug resistant falciparum malaria. The aim of the present study is to determine the physiological and histopathological effects of artemether in Wistar rats. Thirty rats were divided into three groups of ten rats each. Group one served as a control. Group two was injected with artemether (25 mg/kg) and group three was injected with artemether (50 mg/kg). Injection was continued daily for a week. At the end of experimental period, blood was collected for determination of Complete Blood Count (CBC). Serum was separated for estimation of biochemical parameters ALT, AST, ALP, Bilirubin, BUN and creatinine. Liver and kidney were removed for hitopathological examination. The results of the present study showed that artemether has no effects on hematological parameters except for haematocrit percent and hemoglobin level when a high dose of artemether was used (50 mg/kg). Rats which were treated with (50 mg/kg) of the drug showed elevated levels of ALT, AST, ALP compared to the control group, however, bilirubin level was comparable to the control group. BUN level was significantly elevated compared to the control group, however, creatinine level was not significantly different from that shown by control group. No histopathological changes were observed in the liver using either low or high dose of the drug. Low dose of artemether showed a wide area of dilatation of the renal tubules in the medullary zone. In addition, extensive vacuolar degeneration was observed in the epithelial cells of the dilated renal tubules. Renal glomeruli have also shown mild congestion. Serious histopathological changes were exhibited by the groups which received high dose of the drug including prominent dilatation of the renal tubules which were fully stuffed and filled with a homogenous eosinophilic proteinaceous material. Furthermore, renal glomeruli were remarkably congested, in addition to swelling of the tubular epithelium