Nowadays, reverse osmosis is the most widely utilized strategy in membrane technology due to its continuous improvement. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of the surface characteristics of support layers in thin-film membranes to improve their reverse osmosis performance. In this study, interfacial polymerization was used to generate the membranes by employing polyamide as a selective layer on top of the polysulfone supporting sheet. Different membranes, varying in terms of the concentrations of unfunctionalized and functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), as well as ethanol, have been fabricated. The efficiency of the membrane has been increased by increasing its permeability towards water with high salt rejection. Different characterization techniques were applied to examine all of the fabricated membranes. PA-EtOH 30% (v/v), as a selective layer on polysulfone sheets to enhance the membrane’s salt rejection, was shown to be the most efficient of the suggested membranes, improving the membrane’s salt rejection. The water permeability of the polyamide membrane with EtOH 30% (v/v) was 56.18 L/m2 h bar, which was more than twice the average permeability of the polyamide membrane (23.63 L/m2 h bar). The salt rejection was also improved (from 97.73% for NaCl to 99.29% and from 97.39% for MgSO4 to 99.62% in the same condition). The PA-MWCNTs 0.15% membrane, on the other hand, had a reduced surface roughness, higher hydrophobicity, and higher water contact angle readings, according to SEM. These characteristics led to the lowest salt rejection, resulting from the hydrophobic nature of MWCNTs.
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