ROS-Mediated Apoptosis and Genotoxicity Induced by Palladium Nanoparticles in Human Skin Malignant Melanoma Cells

Journal Article
Almeer, Saud Alarifi, Daoud Ali, Saad Alkahtani, and Rafa S. . 2017
Magazine \ Newspaper
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Issue Number
Article ID 8439098,
Volume Number
Volume 2017,
10 pages
Conference Date
Publication Abstract

The present work was designed to investigate the effect of palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) on human skin malignant melanoma (A375) cells, for example, induction of apoptosis, cytotoxicity, and DNA damage. Diseases resulting from dermal exposure may have a significant impact on human health. There is a little study that has been reported on the toxic potential of PdNPs on A375. Cytotoxic potential of PdNPs (0, 5, 10, 20, and 40 μg/ml) was measured by tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay) and NRU assay in A375 cells. PdNPs elicited concentration and time-dependent cytotoxicity, and longer exposure period induced more cytotoxicity as measured by MTT and NRU assay. The molecular mechanisms of cytotoxicity through cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were investigated by AO (acridine orange)/EtBr (ethidium bromide) stain and flow cytometry. PdNPs not only inhibit proliferation of A375 cells in a dose- and time-dependent model but also induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase (before 12 h) and S phase (after 24 h). The induction of oxidative stress in A375 cells treated with above concentration PdNPs for 24 and 48 h increased ROS level; on the other hand, glutathione level was declined. Apoptosis and DNA damage was significantly increased after treatment of PdNPs. Considering all results, PdNPs showed cytotoxicity and genotoxic effect in A375 cells.

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