BARRIERS, ATTITUDES AND SELF-EFFICACY OF PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES IN RECREATIONAL SPORTS ACTIVITIES PARTICIPATION IN SAUDI ARABIA

Thesis
DR. ABDULELAH AHMAD SALAWI . 2014
Publication Work Type
PHD
Conference Date
Publication Abstract

Participation in recreational sports is as important to disabled people as it is to people
without disabilities. This study investigates factors that predict participation of
people with disabilities in recreational sports. A stratified random sampling
technique was used to collect data from 504 respondents in five areas of the
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The stratification was applied based on four types
of disabilities; hearing impairment, visual impairment, speech disorders, and
mobility disorders. A quantitative research approach was used, followed by a
qualitative research approach to further explore the findings. Data analysis was
conducted using t-test to determine the differences in barriers, attitudes, and selfefficacy of people with disabilities who either participate (participants) or do not
participate (non-participants) in recreational sports. Stepwise logistic regression was
conducted to assess the association and correlation among these barriers, attitudes,
and self-efficacy. Then, linear regression was conducted to determine the effect of
moderators on the relationship between independent and dependent variables.
Qualitative data included interviews with 30 respondents to support and further
explain the quantitative results. Results indicated a significant difference in barriers
faced by participants and non-participants. Non-participants faced more barriers than
participants who have previous experience in sports. Results also revealed a
significant difference in the attitudes of participants and non-participants. People
with disabilities who had previous experience in recreational sports were more likely
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to participate in future activities than those who had no such previous experience. No
significant difference exists in self-efficacy of participants and non-participants.
Moreover, attitude was found to positively predict the participation of people with
disabilities in recreational sports. This relationship is moderated by age, area, level of
education, and type of disability. By contrast, barriers negatively predict participation
in recreational sports. This relationship is mediated only by level of education and
area and not by age or type of disability. This study concludes that people with
disabilities in the KSA do not participate in recreational sports and are unfamiliar
with sports programs and recreational activities. This study emphasizes the urgent
need to publicize recreational sports among people with disabilities in the KSA to
overcome the substantial barriers they face. Key strategies include educating and
preparing league administrators, coaches, and appropriate facilities, as well as
helping communities provide new opportunities for recreational sport activities.
Results of this study can assist future investigators in designing a theoretical model
that encompasses different factors to predict participation in recreational sports.
Future studies can also include female participants who are expected to face more
barriers than males in the KSA given the conservative social and cultural norms of
this country. Other types of disabilities, such as mental or psychological disorders
and epilepsy, should also be given attention in future studies