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voltammetry, rutin, graphene, glutamic acid, caffeine, electrochemical analysis
Rutin (RU) is one of the best-known natural antioxidants with various physiological functions in the human body and other plant species. In this work, an efficient voltammetric sensor to detect RU in food samples was explicated using a poly (glutamic acid)-modified graphene paste electrode (PGAMGPE). In order to detect RU, the proposed sensor diminishes material resistance and overpotential while increasing kinetic rate, peak currents, and material conductance. Using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and cyclic voltammetry (CV), the analysing efficiency of a PGAMGPE and a Bare graphene paste electrode (BGPE) was evaluated in 0.2 M phosphate buffer (PB) at an ideal pH of 6.5. in a potential window of −0.25 V to 0.6 V. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to analyse the prepared electrode materials’ conductivity, charge transfer resistance, and the kinetics of electron transport. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images were considered to compare the exterior morphology of the PGAMGPE and the BGPE. It was discovered that the PGAMGPE and the BGPE have electroactive surfaces of 0.062 cm2 and 0.04 cm2, respectively. It was determined that two protons and two electrons participated in the redox process. The resultant limit of detection (LOD) was found to be 0.04 µM and 0.06 µM, respectively, using DPV and CV methods. In spite of common interferents such as metal ions and chemical species, the developed sensor’s selectivity for RU detection was impressive. For the simultaneous analysis of RU in the presence of caffeine (CF), the PGAMGPE affords a good electrochemical nature for RU with good selectivity. Due to the good stability, repeatability, reproducibility, and ease of use of the present RU sensor, it is useful for real sample analysis such as food and medicinal samples with recovery ranging from 94 to 100%.
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