The level of heavy metals (HMs) in coastal sediments has attracted the environmental researchers due to their persistence, abundance, biomagnification and toxicity. The present study was conducted to assess the contamination and ecological risk assessment of HMs in Jazan coastal sediments, Red Sea, Saudi Arabia utilizing pollution indices and multivariate statistical analyses. A total of 32 surface samples were collected for Cu, Sb, Zn, Cr, Cd, Pb, Fe, Co, Ni, Al, and total organic matter analysis using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results indicate the following descending order of metal concentrations: Al > Fe > Cr > Cu > Zn > Ni > Co > Pb > Cd > Sb. Average level of Cd is significantly higher than those from many neighboring and worldwide coastal sediments; and recorded very severe enrichment, severe contamination and very high risk in the investigated sediments. The pollution indices and statistical analyses revealed that proportion of Zn, Fe, Ni, Cr, Al, Cu, Sb and Pb were formed from lithogenic sources of weathering Quaternary units and atmospheric deposition. Most of the Cd, Sb, and Pb levels were derived from anthropogenic sources of industrial, agricultural, and fishing activities. The higher contribution of organic matter may be attributed to the mangrove roots and organic fertilizers; and played a key role in adsorbing, transferring and accumulating of elements.
Contamination and ecological risk assessment of the Red Sea coastal sediments, southwest Saudi Arabia
Kassem, Ali Kahal , Abdelbaset S. El-Sorogy, , Saleh Qaysi , Sattam Almadani , Osama M. . 2020