Biological characteristics and biomarkers of novel SARS-CoV-2 facilitated rapid development and implementation of diagnostic tools and surveillance measures.

Journal Article
Publisher Name
Magazine \ Newspaper
Biosensors and Bioelectronics
Volume Number
Publication Abstract

Existing coronavirus named as a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has speeded its spread across the globe immediately after emergence in China, Wuhan region, at the end of the year 2019. Different techniques, including genome sequencing, structural feature classification by electron microscopy, and chest imaging using computed tomography, are primarily used to diagnose and screen SARS-CoV-2 suspected individuals. Determination of the viral structure, surface proteins, and genome sequence has provided a design blueprint for the diagnostic investigations of novel SARS-CoV-2 virus and rapidly emerging diagnostic technologies, vaccine trials, and cell-entry-inhibiting drugs. Here, we describe recent understandings on the spike glycoprotein (S protein), receptor-binding domain (RBD), and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and their receptor complex. This report also aims to review recently established diagnostic technologies and developments in surveillance measures for SARS-CoV-2 as well as the characteristics and performance of emerging techniques. Smartphone apps for contact tracing can help nations to conduct surveillance measures before a vaccine and effective medicines become available. We also describe promising point-of-care (POC) diagnostic technologies that are under consideration by researchers for advancement beyond the proof-of-concept stage. Developing novel diagnostic techniques needs to be facilitated to establish automatic systems, without any personal involvement or arrangement to curb an existing SARS-CoV-2 epidemic crisis, and could also be appropriate for avoiding the emergence of a future epidemic crisis.

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