Epidemiology of enterotoxaemia in livestock in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

مقال فى مجلة
B., Omer, S. A., Babiker, S. E. H., Aljulaifi, M. Z., Al-Olayan, E. M., Alagaili, A. N., & Mohammed, O. . 2020
مجلة/صحيفة
Journal of King Saud University-Science,
رقم المجلد
32
الصفحات
2662-2668
تاريخ المؤتمر
ملخص المنشورات

A cross sectional study was conducted during the period 2014–2015, to estimate the prevalence and
assess contribution of some risk factors for the occurrence of enterotoxaemia in sheep, goats, cattle
and camels in the Kingdom Saudi Arabia. A total of 1593 animals from 476 herds were investigated.
ELISA tests were conducted using a commercial kit for the detection of different toxins produced by
Clostridium perfringens causing the disease. The toxicogenic typing of C. perfringens in clinical samples
by ELISA kit, revealed that the predominant types were C. perfringens type A (67.2%) followed by type
D (16.4%), then type B (13.4%) and type C (3%). Further confirmation of representative C. perfringens isolated
from enterotoxaemia positive animals was performed using polymerase chain reaction. The overall
prevalence of enterotoxaemia disease at the animal and herd level was 27.2% and 26.47% respectively.
There were significant differences in the prevalence of enterotoxaemia in animals between the different
regions in KSA, animal species and months of the year. The highest prevalence was detected in Aljouf
region (41.7%), followed by Hail region (40.9%), Qassim (37.8%), Jazan (31.1%), the eastern region
(26.1%) and Riyadh region (10.4%). The prevalence was the highest cattle (64.3%), followed by goats
(29.9%), camels (21.5%) and sheep (21.4%). Risk factors such as regions (v2 = 89.65, p = 0.000), months
of the year (v2 = 76.65, p = 0.000), animal species (v2 = 50.81, p = 0.000), disease presence by years
(v2 = 29.75, p = 0.000), herds prevalence (v2 = 1443.6, p = 0.000) showed statistically significant association
with enterotoxaemia disease. In the multivariate analysis, species of animals (OR = 4.88, p = 0.000)
was found to be the most statistically significant risk factor associated with enterotoxaemia. Cattle were
found to be approximately five times more likely to have infection with enterotoxaemia (OR = 4.88, CI =
2.55–9.37, p = 0.0001) compared to other animal species. High overall prevalence of enterotoxaemia
cases in all animal species occurred during the period August–December of the year 2015 with the highest
prevalence in September (50%).

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