In-vitro antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of lipopeptide against drug resistant Vibrio species

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Background
The unrestricted application of antibiotics increased antimicrobial resistance in bacteria through horizontal gene transfer of resistant genes from the pathogenic sources and the evolution of multi-drug resistance organisms. The application of antibiotics caused severe risk to human health because animals may transmit diseases to humans. Hence, the search of novel antimicrobial agents from microbial sources is an urgent need.

Methods
A lipopeptide producing stain SU05 was isolated from the pond water by serial dilution method. The lipopeptide yield was improved after optimization method and the yield was analyzed using High Performance Liquid chromatography. The influence of wheat bran (0.5%–2.5%) and rice bran (0.5%–2.5%), pH (5.5–8.5), temperature (25–40 °C) were screened to improve the production of lipopeptides by stain SU05 in submerged fermentation. Antibacterial activity of crude lipopeptide was tested against Vibrio anguillarum, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio salmonicida, Vibrio septicus, Vibrio fischeri, and Vibrio splendidus. The influence of lipopeptide on enzymes and antimicrobial property was analyzed.

Results
Lipopeptide production was improved after nutrient supplements and optimization of physical factors. Lipopeptide showed potent activity against multi-drug resistant bacterial strains such as, V. anguillarum, V. harveyi, V. vulnificus, V. salmonicida, V. septicus, V. fischeri, and V. splendidus. Lipopeptide shows stability on various enzymes and this clearly revealed that the purified lipopeptide was highly stable in the presence of proteolytic enzymes. The findings suggest that lipopeptide SU05 characterized from the bacteria can survive at acidic environment in the intestine, and could be used to formulate fish feed.

Conclusions
The finding showed that the characterized lipopepties synthesized by B. amyloliquefaciens SU05 had a broad spectrum antibiotic potential against multidrug resistant Vibriosis causing bacterial pathogens. They were highly stable at broad temperature and pH ranges. These results demonstrated stability of lipopeptide at extreme conditions. The stability and activity of lipopeptide at extreme climatic condition is also useful for the application in pharmaceutical and food processing industries.