The Antimicrobial Activities of Silver Nanoparticles from Aqueous Extract of Grape Seeds against Pathogenic Bacteria and Fungi

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Grape seed extract (GSE) is a natural source of polyphenolic compounds and secondary metabolites, which have been tested for their possible antimicrobial activities. In the current study, we tested the antibacterial and antifungal activities of aqueous GSE and the biosynthesized silver nanoparticles loaded with GSE (GSE-AgNPs) against different pathogens. The biosynthesized GSE-AgNPs were assessed by UV spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The antimicrobial activities were assessed against different bacterial and fungal species. DLS analysis showed that GSE-AgNPs had a Z-Average of 91.89 nm while UV spectroscopy showed that GSE-AgNPs had the highest absorbance at a wavelength of ~415 nm. FTIR analysis revealed that both of GSE and GSE-AgNPs consisted of different functional groups, such as hydroxyl, alkenes, alkyne, and aromatic rings. Both FE-SEM and TEM showed that GSE-AgNPs had larger sizes and rough surfaces than GSE and AgNO3. The results showed significant antimicrobial activities of GSE-AgNPs against all tested species, unlike GSE, which had weaker and limited effects. More studies are needed to investigate the other antimicrobial activities of GSE.