Objectives: Erythrocytes or red blood cells (RBCs) are the most abundant cells in blood. They transport
oxygen from lungs to tissues and bring back carbon dioxide from tissues to lungs. Being non-nucleated
and lacking the cellular organelles, they have been widely used for in vitro toxicity studies. The present
study was carried out to study the comparative in vitro toxicity of cadmium (Cd) on RBCs of camel and
Methods: Both cow and camel whole blood samples were exposed to 0, 10, 50 and 100 lM of cadmium
chloride (CdCl2) and the tubes were incubated at 37 C for 24 h. The erythrocytes from both the species
were separated and used for biochemical determinations for markers of oxidative stress.
Results: Cd caused a concentration dependent decrease in bovine glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. However, in the case of camel RBCs, the decrease in GSH content and SOD
activity were observed at medium and high concentrations only. Cd exposure also resulted in significant
inhibition of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase in both bovine and camel RBCs.
The GPx in camel RBCs was inhibited only at a high concentration of Cd. Various concentrations of Cd
inhibited the catalase in bovine RBCs only, without any significant inhibition of catalase in camel RBCs.
Medium and high concentrations of Cd caused an increase in lipid peroxidation in bovine RBCs. In the
case of camel RBCs, none of the used concentrations of Cd caused lipid peroxidation.
Conclusions: The present study concludes that in vitro incubation of camel and bovine RBCs with Cd
causes an impairment of their antioxidant system and therefore increases their susceptibility to hemolysis. However, the camel RBCs appear to have an increased resistance to oxidative stress generated by
2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of King Saud University. This is an open access
article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
Comparative evaluation of cadmium-induced oxidative stress in camel and bovine erythrocytes