Objectives: To assess circulating fetuin A and fetuin B levels in participants with and without Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) and to find out their correlations with other different parameters relating to gestational diabetes in Saudi women.
Methods: A total of 123 Saudi pregnant women (N: 46 GDM and N: 77 healthy control) were included in this observational study. Fasting blood samples were collected to assess serum lipids, insulin and fetuin A and fetuin B. Serum fetuin A and fetuin B were quantified by commercially available kits.
Results: The median value of fetuin A was slight lower in GDM patients [2003 pg/ml (866-3369)] than in the control group [2015 pg/ml (1060-2951)] without significant difference (P=0.95). The median value of fetuin B was also slight lower in GDM patients [3292 ng/ml (782-6740)] than the control group [3514 ng/ml (364-14854)] but without significant difference (P=0.564). There was a significant inverse correlation between fetuin B and total cholesterol in control group.
Conclusions: The present study did not find a significant association between fetuins A and B with GDM or insulin resistance, but there was a significant inverse correlation between fetuin B and total cholesterol in the control group, reflecting good glucose control and adequate use of lipids in the nutrition of the fetus. Further research is required in the future to understand fetuin's role in the progression of GDM in Saudi women.