This book is a collection of original research and survey articles on mathematical inequalities and their numerous applications in diverse areas of mathematics and engineering. It includes chapters on convexity and related concepts; inequalities for mean values, sums, functions, operators, functionals, integrals and their applications in various branches of mathematics and related sciences; fractional integral inequalities; and weighted type integral inequalities. It also presents their wide applications in biomathematics, boundary value problems, mechanics, queuing models, scattering, and geomechanics in a concise, but easily understandable way that makes the further ramifications and future directions clear. The broad scope and high quality of the contributions make this book highly attractive for graduates, postgraduates and researchers. All the contributing authors are leading international academics, scientists, researchers and scholars.