Gender-specific Associations between Insulin Resistance, Hypertension, and Markers of Inflammation among Adult Saudis with and without Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Journal Article
, Al-Daghri NM, Al-Attas OS, Alokial MS, Shaik NA, Draz H, Bamakhramah A, Sabico S. . 2010
Publication Work Type: 
Magazine \ Newspaper: 
Adv Med Sci
Volume Number: 
Publication Abstract: 


In view of the important roles of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the acute phase reactant C-reactive protein (CRP) in glucose metabolism and pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2), we assessed gender-specific differences and relative associations of these inflammatory biomarkers to insulin resistance (IR) and risk markers for DMT2.


Serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and CRP were determined in 119 clinically diagnosed DMT2 cases, 114 non-DMT2 subjects with IR, and 97 age-matched controls. Fasting blood samples were collected and serum glucose levels, lipid profile, and inflammatory markers were analyzed.


In women, a significant association between elevated levels of IL-6 and risk of developing IR [Odds ratio (OR), 4.389, 95 % Confidence Interval (CI) 1.6-11.52, p = 0.004] was found. Significant associations were also found between elevated levels of CRP and risk of hypertension only in female subjects [OR (95% CI) 2.153 (1.04-4.53), p = 0.046]. While, in male subjects, a significant association between elevated levels of TNF-α and risk of developing IR [OR (95% CI) 2.32 (1.09-4.93), p = 0.029] was found.


The present study showed apparent gender differences in the association of IL-6, CRP, and TNF-a with risks of IR and hypertension, and this could be attributed to sexual dimorphism in fat distribution.