The role of oxidative stress in the initiation and progress of epilepsy is well established. Proanthocyanidins (PACs), a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound, have been reported to possess a broad spectrum of pharmacological and therapeutic properties against oxidative stress. However, the protective effects of proanthocyanidins against epilepsy have not been clarified. In the present study, we used the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced epilepsy mouse model to explore whether proanthocyanidins could help to reduce oxidative stress and protect against epilepsy. Mice were allocated into four groups (n = 14 per each group): control, PTZ (60 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), PACs + PTZ (200 mg/kg, p.o.) and sodium valproate (VPA) + PTZ (200 mg/kg, p.o.). PTZ injection caused oxidative stress in the hippocampal tissue as represented by the elevated lipid peroxidation and NO synthesis and increased expression of iNOS. Furthermore, depleted levels of anti-oxidants, GSH, GR, GPx, SOD, and CAT also indicate that oxidative stress was induced in mice exposed to PTZ. Additionally, a state of neuroinflammation was recorded following the developed seizures. Moreover, neuronal apoptosis was recorded following the development of epileptic convulsions as confirmed by the elevated Bax and caspase-3 and the decreased Bcl2 protein. Moreover, AChE activity, DA, NE, 5-HT, brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, and gene expression of Nrf2 have decreased in the hippocampal tissue of PTZ exposed mice. However, pre-treatment of mice with PACs protected against the generation of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and neuroinflammation in the PTZ exposed mice brain as the biomarkers for all these conditions was bought to control levels. In addition, the gene expression of Nrf2 was significantly upregulated following PACs treatment. These results suggest that PACs can ameliorate oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and neuronal apoptosis by activating the Nrf2 signaling pathway in PTZ induced seizures in mice.
|Rafa paper 2022.pdf||2.79 ميغابايت|