Sex-Specific Cut-Offs of Single Point Insulin Sensitivity Estimator (SPISE) in Predicting Metabolic Syndrome in the Arab Adolescents

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The Single Point Insulin Sensitivity Estimator (SPISE) is a novel surrogate marker for insulin sensitivity and was found comparable to the gold standard clamp test as well as for predicting the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) in several populations. The present study aimed to assess for the first time, the validity of SPISE in predicting MetS among Arab adolescents. In this cross-sectional study, 951 Saudi adolescents aged 10−17 years were randomly recruited from different schools across Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Anthropometrics were measured and fasting blood samples were collected for the assessment of glucose, lipid profile, adipokines, C-reactive protein and 25 hydroxyvitamin (OH) D. MetS was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program’s (NCEP) criteria with age-specific thresholds for adolescents. The SPISE as well as insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) indices were calculated. The over-all prevalence of MetS was 8.6% (82 out of 951). SPISE index was significantly lower in MetS than non-MetS participants in both sexes (5.5 ± 2.5 vs. 9.4 ± 3.2, p < 0.001 in boys and 4.4 ± 1.4 vs. 8.6 ± 3.2, p < 0.001 in girls). The SPISE index showed a significant inverse correlation with resistin, leptin, and C-reactive protein, and a significant positive correlation with adiponectin and 25(OH) D. Areas under the curve (AUC) revealed fair and good accuracy for predicting MetS 84.1% and 90.3% in boys and girls, respectively. The sex-specific cut-off proposed was SPISE index ≤6.1 (sensitivity 72.2% and specificity 83.9%) for boys and ≤6.46 (sensitivity 96.3% and specificity 73.4%), for girls. This study suggests that the SPISE index is a simple and promising diagnostic marker of insulin sensitivity and MetS in Arab adolescents.

Keywords: SPISE; adiponectin; insulin resistance; insulin sensitivity; leptin; metabolic syndrome; resistin; sex-specific; vitamin D.