Lead-induced toxicity is responsible for physiological disarray in humans and animals. The present
study was aimed to synthesize'green'nanoparticles of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) leaf extract and
investigate the comparative ameliorative efficacy of rosemary extract and the nanoformulations against
the lead toxicity in male Wistar rats.
Non-capsulated rosemary particles were synthesized with dichloromethane.
Encapsulated nanoparticles of rosemary were synthesized with two polymers, starch and a combination of
starch with polyvinyl alcohol.The nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy
and dynamic light scattering.Parallel to this, Wistar rats were exposed to 30mgKg-1 lead acetate, four
experimental groups were treated with rosemary extract (150mgKg-1) as bulk (BR), nanorosemary (RN),
encapsulated nanoparticles RN1 and RN2, respectively, for a period of 21 days.
Green synthesis of water soluble nanorosemary (RN) and encapsulated nanoparticles RN1 and
RN2, with composite and single polymer, was successfully achieved. The micrographs showed spherical
and irregular morphology of RN, while RN1 and RN2 were more spherical.The average size of
nanorosemary (RN) was 75.45 nm, while that of encapsulated rosemary nanoparticles (RN1) and RN2 was
2.665 nm and 3.026 nm. Treatment with nanoformulations reduced the level of serum malondialdehyde in
the rats. Also, due to their enhanced bioavailability, the nanoparticles efficiently reduced the lead
concentrationin tissues compared to the bulk rosemary.
The results demonstrate the enhanced protective efficacy of encapsulated nanoparticles,
in particular RN1. Thus, the formulation could be a potential ecofriendly, safe and novel therapeutic
approach against lead toxicity.