The aim of this course is to understand the mechanism of Genotoxic carcinogens and epigenetic carcinogens. How the environmental occurrence, and the environmental fate cause human exposure to carcinogens. This course also will focus in toxicity of molecular Oxygen, oxidation reduction biochemistry, Xenobiotic induced methemoglobinemia and biotransformation of carcinogens. The course will look at carcinogenic mutagenesis and the covalent binding of Xenobiotic to nucleic acids and protein molecules. The molecular principles of specific Toxicants will cover in this course such as Alkylating agents, aromatic amines and polycyclic aromatic Hydrocarbon. The course will give attention to cover the physical gents in carcinogenesis, mycotoxins, food additives and carcinogens and recent topics in carcinogens. Moreover the covalent binding of Xenobiotic to DNA and protein will be covered.