بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

 

أجب عن الأسئلة الآتية:

1.  تحدث عن أربعة فقط مما يأتي: أ­ مهمة الناقد في ظل البنيوية  ب­ مرض العصر.  ج­ الخيال الثانوي.  د­ البنية. هـ­ ملء فجوات النص. و_ مصادر النص.

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2.  عرِّف أربعة فقط من المصطلحات الآتية تعريفًا مقارِنًا: أ­ القارئ الحقيقي والقارئ المثالي.  ب­ النقد الأدبي والنقد الثقافي.  ج­ النص المقروء والنص المكتوب. د­ الشفرة والسياق. هـ­ خيبة الانتظار وكسر التوقع.

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3. يذهب بعض منظِّري النقد الأدبي الحديث، إلى أن مجال الإبداع يحتوي في إطاره ثلاثة عناصر أساسية، هي: المؤلف – النص – المتلقي، ويبدو أنهم ارتدّوا فيما ذهبوا إليه إلى المسيرة التاريخية للمناهج النقدية في توجهاتها، أو ربما تقلباتها. استعرِض تلك المسيرة موضِّحًا انعطافاتها المختلفة وتفصيلات تلك الانعطافات.

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