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OPTO 374: Binocular Vision 



 Course Outline 


Course Title: OPTO 374: Binocular Vision   

Instructor: Safiah Mulla MSc, BSc, OC(C)

King Saud University

College of Applied Medical Science

Optometry Department

Telephone: 435-5010 Ext: 883



This course is broken down into weeks and each week consists of one in- depth power point lecture, often with additional readings that you will receive in advance. Typically this takes about 2 hours for the in-class delivery, so plan on committing that much time per week for the first read- through. I will provided you with a written copy of the lectures, but please also view the lectures on the internet (via your email).


There is an additional recommended weekly 2-hour laboratory component in which to practice the skills taught in lectures, to practice your skills.To aid you in your practice and help you learn proper examination techniques, you will be given a practical skills booklet in which to record your practice under observation. For each skill you will find a check-off list of things to remember when you are performing each task, and these are the things your proctor will be looking for as well. You will be required to have a proctor observe your performance, sign the corresponding page in the practice booklet confirming that you have been performing the task properly, and deliver it to me within the designated time frame (see calendar for exact weeks that these are due).


Objective and Course Content:

Vision is perhaps the most important of our senses, as reflected by the fact that approximately 50% of our cerebral cortex is involved in visual processing. It provides us with critical information about the world around us.

Vision is based on the retinal image formed in each eye, and monocular vision alone provides us with much significant data.

In this course, we will mainly be concerned with binocular vision—that is, vision that results from the combined input from two eyes.

The students will have a general recap of the BSV and the clinical assessment of patient with emphasis on the standard clinical procedures. This will be achieved through lectures with clinical scenarios and practical skills in which the student will be required to engage in direct patient care.

This class will provide the student with the knowledge and experience specific to BSV so that the student will show the following understanding and abilities:

·        Knowledge of the concept of the BSV.

·        Knowledge of the prerequisite to develop normal BSV

·        The ability to select and administrate diagnostic tools to evaluate BSV status and identify anomalies in a patient scenario.

·        The ability to selects an alternate method to diagnose and evaluate BSV and identify anomalies in a patient scenario.

·        The ability to determine the appropriate sequence and application of tests for sensory and motor evaluation, based on the findings of ophthalmic examination.

This class is a prerequisite for OPTO 375 Anomalies of binocular vision.


A.  Overview of Binocular Vision

·        The Importance of binocular vision

·        Advantages of binocular vision

·        Disadvantages of binocular vision

B.    Neurophysiology & development of binocular vision

·        The Critical Period of the development of binocular vision  

C.  Normal Binocular Vision Phenomena

·        Visual Direction

·        Retinal correspondence

·        Fixation disparity

·        AC/A ratio

·        Binocular summation

·        Ocular dominance

·        Depth perception & stereopsis

·        Rivalry and suppression

·        Aniseikonia        

D.  Sensory fusion

E.  Motor fusion

F.  Binocular Vision & Stereopsis



You are required text for the course:

- Binocular Anomalies – Diagnosis and Vision Therapy,    Griffin J.R. and Grishan J.D. (Published by Butterworth- Heinemann, 1995)

- Griffin J.R & Grishan J.D.  (1995) Binocular Anomalies – Diagnosis and Vision Therapy. Published by Butterworth-Heinemann.

- Rowe, F. (2004).Clinical Orthoptic. UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd

- Clinical Managements of Binocular Vision: Heterophoric, Accommodative, & Eye  Movement Disorders by Mitchell  Scheiman, and Bruce Wick,

- Lecture handouts

- Assigned reading handouts


Electronic Materials, Web Sites etc


Course Material:

By the start of the course you would receive:

1. Weekly printed copies of lectures, accompanying readings for each lecture, course outline, calendar, etc.

2. Practical Skills Booklet

Continuous Assessments:

There will be 1 continuous assessment tests (written exam) during the course of this semester. It will be in the form of multiple-choice and short answer quizzes during the lecture periods or short essays on topics already covered. Other forms of evaluation include assignments, class's discussion questions, and written exams. Please read on for details... 

Course Evaluation:

1.     Assignment (10%)

2.     In class participation (5%)

3.     Practical Skills Booklet (20%)

4.     Midterm Exam (25%)

5.     Final Exam (40%)

Detailed Course Evaluation by Component:

1- Assignment (10%)

Please find the assignment section of your course and you will see that you have (Assignment #1) due at the end of the course. This involves an APA style research paper that is sent to the entire class. It will be from this research that you will study this topic and no other lectures will be provided. Please see me for more details.

2- In class participation (5%)

3- Practical Skills Booklet (20%)

Weekly (will be indicated in the course calendar and course summary by weeks), we will clinically practice the course assigned clinical examinations. These sections are designed to explore the practical content of the class and develop your clinical skills. You are required to participate as well as completing and returned the checklist with the Skills Objective Achievement sheet you have received earlier (Assignment #2). All completed practical skills booklet forms must be submitted by the required due date. Your participation in the practical section as well as completing your assignments will greatly impact your clinical participation grade for the course. Please review the practical skills booklet for more detail.

4-Midterm Exam (25%)

This will be a short answer and multiple-choice test to be completed within 2 hours under the supervision of a proctor. This exam will be sent to your proctor and they will administer it and then send it to me for grading.

5-Final Written Exam (40%)

Similar to the midterm, but usually requires 3 hours to complete and includes all course material.  

Please Note: Examinations must be written during allotted times and make- ups will be permitted only due to illness or other very exceptional circumstances. You must notify me before the scheduled exam if you will be absent. A physician’s medical report dated that day of the missed examination will be necessary to document legitimate illness.

Late assignments will be accepted with the following penalties:

1 day late10% penalty

2 days kite20% penalty

3 days late 30% penalty and so on....



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