- Farsightedness (hyperopia):
Farsightedness or hyperopia, occurs when light entering the eye focuses
behind the retina, instead of directly on it. This is caused by a cornea that is
flatter, or an eye that is shorter, than a normal eye. Farsighted people
usually have trouble seeing up close, but may also have difficulty seeing far
away as well.
Objects far away like the islands are in focus,
but close up objects, like the chairs are blurry
Glasses and contact lenses are used by many for the temporary treatment of
hyperopia.However, there are a number of vision correction procedures that
can surgically reduce or eliminate hyperopia.
For more: http://www.aoa.org/x4696.xml
- Glaucoma (elevated eye pressure):
-Falsely Misaligned Eyes
- Misaligned Eyes (strabismus):
Strabismus is a problem caused by one or more improperly functioning eye
muscles, resulting in a misalignment of the eyes. Normally, each eye focuses
on the same spot but sends a slightly different message to the brain. The
brain superimposes the two images, giving vision depth and dimension.
Here's an easy way to see how the eyes work together, look at the image up and notice
how each eye sees the object from a slightly diffrent position, however, even though the
images are slightly different, the brain interprets them as one.
Each eye has six muscles that work in unison to control movements. The brain controls
the eye muscles, which keep the eyes properly aligned. It is critical that the muscles
function together for the brain to interpret the image from each eye as a single one.
In children, the cause of strabismus is not known, although the condition runs in families
and occurs more commonly in children with neurological problems.
In adults, causes of strabismus include injury to an eye muscle or the nerves controlling
those muscles; head trauma; conditions such as diabetes or high blood pressure; loss
of vision; an eye or brain tumor; Graves' disease, stroke or other muscle and nerve
Strabismus must be detected early in children because they are so adaptable If a child
sees double, his or her brain quickly learns to suppress or block out one of the images to
maintain single vision. In a very short time, the brain permanently suppresses and
ignore the input from the turned eye, causing a weak or amblyopic eye. If this is allowed
to continue, the eye that the brain ignores will never see well. Children do not grow out
Children may also develop a head tilt or turn to compensate for the problem and
eliminate the double image. Unlike children, adults with a newly acquired strabismus
problem typically see double.
There are many causes of strabismus. It can be inherited, or it may be caused by
trauma, certain diseases, and sometimes eye surgery. It may also be caused by unequal
pulling of muscles on one side of the eye or a paralysis of the ocular muscles.
Occasionally, when a farsighted child tries to focus to compensate for the
farsightedness, he or she will develop accommodative strabismus. This condition usually
appears before two years of age and can occur as late as six.
Treatment options depend upon the type of strabismus and may include glasses,
vision therapy, prism, lenses and/or surgery. Vision therapy including patching or visual
exercises, glasses with the correct prescription or bifocal or prism correction to aid in
proper focusing, eyedrops to help focus.
If treated by surgery, the goal is to get the eyes straight enough that the brain can
develop some depth perception. Many children will develop the ability to use the eyes
together following surgery, however, surgery will correct the misaligned eyes but cannot
resolve amblyopia caused by strabismus. if present, amblyopia need to be treated prior
For more: http://www.aoa.org/x4700.xml
- Lazy Eye (amblyopia):
Amblyopia is a term used to describe an uncorrectable loss of vision in an eye that
appears to be normal. It’s commonly referred to as “lazy eye” and can occur for a variety
of reasons. Most often it results from either a misalignment of a child's eyes, such as
crossed eyes, or a difference in image quality between the two eyes (one eye focusing
better than the other. In both cases, one eye becomes stronger, suppressing the image
of the other eye. If this condition persists, the weaker eye may never develop good vision
and may even become functionally blind.
A child’s visual system is fully developed between approximately the ages of 9-11 year.
Until then, children readily adapt to visual problems by suppressing or blocking out the
image of the deviated eye, and, after about age 11, it is difficult if not impossible to
train the brain to use the eye normally, however, if caught early, the problem can often
be corrected and the vision preserved.
Some causes of amblyopia include: strabismus (crossed or turned eye), congenital
cataracts, cloudy cornea, droopy eyelid, unequal vision, uncorrected nearsightedness,
farsightedness or astigmatism.
Amblyopia may occur in various degrees depending on the severity of the underlying
problem. Some patients just experience a partial loss; others are only able to recognize
motion. Patients with amblyopia lack binocular vision, or stereopsis – the ability to blend
the images of both eyes together. Stereopsis is what allows us to appreciate depth.
Without it, the ability to judge distance is impaired.
Amblyopic children can be treated with vision therapy (which often includes patching one
eye), atropine eye drops, the correct prescription for nearsightedness or farsightedness,
or surgery. Vision therapist will place a patch over the stronger eye to force the weaker
eye to learn to see (forces the child to use the eye with amblyopia more, to strengthen
it). Patching may be required for several hours each day or even all day long and may
continue for weeks or months. which forces the child to use the eye with amblyopia
more, to strengthen it.
For more: http://www.aoa.org/x4699.xml
- Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction:
Many children are born with an underdeveloped tear-duct system, a problem that can
lead to tear-duct blockage, excess tearing, and infection. This is called congenital
nasolacrimal duct obstruction or dacryostenosis. Most commonly, an infant is born with a
duct that is too narrow and therefore doesn't drain properly or becomes blocked easily.
The most common signs are excessive tearing, even when a child is not crying, crust
over the eyelid or in the eyelashes. Kids with blocked tear ducts can develop an infection
in the lacrimal sac signs include redness at the inner corner of the eye and a slight
tenderness and swelling or bump at the side of the nose.
Blocked tear ducts are a fairly common problem in infants; as many as one third may be
born with this condition. Fortunately, more than 90% of all cases resolve by the time
kids are 1 year old with little or no treatment. The earlier that blocked tear ducts are
discovered, the less likely it is that infection will result or that surgery will be necessary. If
there are signs of infection (such as redness, pus, or swelling), child should be seen
and treated immediately because the infection can spread to other parts of the face and
the blockage can lead to an abscess.
For more: http://www.pedseye.com/topics_tear_duct_obstruction.htm
- Nearsightedness (myopia):
Nearsightedness, or myopia, as it is medically termed, is a vision condition in which
near objects are seen clearly, but distant objects do not come into proper focus.
Close up objects like the chairs are in focus,
while objects far away like the islands are blurry
Nearsightedness occurs if your eyeball is too long or the cornea has too much curvature,
so the light entering your eye is not focused correctly.
Nearsightedness is a very common vision condition that affects nearly 30 percent of the
population. Some evidence supports the theory that nearsightedness is hereditary.
Because the eye continues to grow during childhood, nearsightedness generally
develops before age 2.
Glasses and contact lenses are used by many for the temporary treatment of
myopia.However, there are a number of vision correction procedures that
can surgically reduce or eliminate myopia.
For more: http://www.aoa.org/x4688.xml
- Ptosis (droopy eyelids):
Drooping of the upper eyelid, may occur for several reasons such as: disease,
injury, birth defect, previous eye surgery and age. In most cases, it is
caused by either a weakness of the levator muscle (muscle that raises the
lid), or a problem with the nerve that sends messages to the muscle.
Children born with ptosis may require surgical correction of the lid if it covers
the pupil. In some cases, it may be associated with a crossed or misaligned
eye strabismus. Left untreated, ptosis may prevent vision from developing
properly, resulting in amblyopia, or lazy eye.
Patients with ptosis often have difficult blinking, which may lead to irritation,
infection and eyestrain. If a sudden and obvious lid droop is developed, an
eye care specialist should be consulted immediately.
Children born with moderate or severe ptosis require treatment in order for
proper vision to develop. Failure to treat ptosis can result in amblyopia
(diminished vision in one eye) and a lifetime of poor vision. All children with
ptosis, even mild cases, should visit their eye care practitioner every year.
The eyes change shape as they grow, and sometimes focusing and visual
problems develop, all because of the worsening ptosis.
For more: http://www.eyecareamerica.org/eyecare/conditions/ptosis/index.cfm
- Pink Eye (conjunctivitis):
It is an infection of the conjunctiva (the outer-most layer of the eye that covers the
sclera). The three most common types of conjunctivitis are: viral, allergic, and
bactrial. Each requires different treatments. With the exception of the allergic type,
conjunctivitis is typically contagious.
The viral type is often associated with an upper respiratory tract infection, cold, or sore
throat. The allergic type occurs more frequently among those with allergic conditions.
When related to allergies, the symptoms are often seasonal. Allergic conjunctivitis may
also be caused by intolerance to substances such as cosmetics, perfume, or drugs.
Bacterial conjunctivitis is often caused by bacteria such as staphylococcus and
The severity of the infection depends on the type of bacteria involved. Someone who
has pinkeye in one eye can also inadvertently spread it to the other eye by touching the
infected eye, then touching the other one. To prevent pinkeye caused by infections,
teach kids to wash their hands often with warm water and soap. They also should not
share eye drops, tissues, eye makeup, washcloths, towels, or pillowcases with other
Pinkeye caused by a virus usually goes away on its own without any treatment. If a
doctor suspects that the pinkeye has been caused by a bacterial infection, antibiotic eye
drops or ointment will be prescribed.
Retinoblastoma - is a cancer of one or both eyes which occurs in young children.
This cancer is very rare, affecting one in every eighteen thousand children and affects
children of all races and both boys and girls. The cause is unknown. We do know that if
your parent had it, then you may inherit the cancer. These cancer cells don’t usually
spread away from the eye.
The retinoblastoma tumor(s) originate in the retina, the light sensitive layer of the eye
which enables the eye to see. When the tumors are present in one eye, it is referred to
as unilateral retinoblastoma, and when it occurs in both eyes it is referred to as bilateral
retinoblastoma. Most cases (75%) involve only one eye (unilateral); the rest (25%) affect
both eyes (bilateral). The majority (90%) of retinoblastoma patients have no family
history of the disease; only a small percentage of newly diagnosed patients have other
family members with retinoblastoma (10%).
The most common presenting signs are leukocoria and squint. Leukocoria, or white
pupil, can be seen at certain angles when looking at the child.
The size of the tumour and the spread of the disease determines the treatment that the
child gets. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy,
cryotherapy and/or photocoagulation.
For more: http://www.aoa.org/x8066.xml
Spotting Eye Problems
Watch your child for evidence of poor vision or eye problems. If you notice any, have
your child examined immediately so that the problem doesn't become permanent.
The following are some signs that a child may have as an evidence of vision problems:
- constant eye rubbing
- extreme light sensitivity
- poor focusing
- poor visual tracking (following an object)
- abnormal alignment or movement of the eyes (after 6 months of age)
- chronic redness of the eyes
- chronic tearing of the eyes
- a white pupil instead of black or milky white covering over the pupil
- inability to see objects at a distance
- inability to read the blackboard
- difficulty reading
- sitting too close to the TV
- Crossed eyes
- Drooping eyelid
- Pink/red eyes
- Vibrating Eyes
- Tilting the head
- Losing place while reading
- Covering one eye to read or watch television
- Finger pointing while reading
- Frequent headach