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 Anatomy and Physiology  

 

 

 

 

 

1- Human Skull  

http://www.face-and-emotion.com/dataface/anatomy/cranium.jsp

http://www.face-and-emotion.com/dataface/anatomy/skullviews.jsp

http://www.face-and-emotion.com/dataface/anatomy/landmarks.jsp

Cranial Bone:

http://www.face-and-emotion.com/dataface/anatomy/cranialbones.jsp

Facial Bone:

http://www.face-and-emotion.com/dataface/anatomy/facialbones.jsp

 

2- Nerves:

Facial Nerve:

http://www.face-and-emotion.com/dataface/anatomy/peripheralnerves.jsp

http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/grossAnatomy/h_n/cn/cn1/cn7.htm

Trigeminal Nerve:

http://www.face-and-emotion.com/dataface/anatomy/trigeminal.jsp

http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/grossAnatomy/h_n/cn/cn1/cn5.htm

 

3-Oculomotor Nerve:

CN II. Optic Nerve

http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/grossAnatomy/h_n/cn/cn1/cn2.htm

CN III. Oculomotor Nerve

http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/grossAnatomy/h_n/cn/cn1/cn3.htm

CN IV. Trochlear Nerve

http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/grossAnatomy/h_n/cn/cn1/cn4.htm

CN VI. Abducens Nerve

http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/grossAnatomy/h_n/cn/cn1/cn6.htm

 

4- Eye Muscles:

http://www.face-and-emotion.com/dataface/anatomy/eyemuscles.jsp

 

5- Retina:

 

PART 1: Anatomy of The Eye:

  1. Introduction
  2. Gross Anatomy of the Eye
  3. Simple Anatomy of the Retina
  4. How the Retina Works. (7.5 MB pdf file) by Helga Kolb

 

PART 2:

 

Anatomy and Physiology of the retina

  1. Photoreceptors
  2. Outer plexiform layer
  3. S-Potentials and Horizontal cells. by Ido Perlman, Helga Kolb and Ralph Nelson
  4. Inner plexiform layer
  5. Morphology and Circuitry of Ganglion cells
  6. Visual Responses of Ganglion cells. By Ralph Nelson
  7. Melanopsin Ganglion Cells: A Bit of Fly in the Mammalian Eye. By Dustin Graham
  8. Glial cells of the retina

 

PART 3:

 

Retinal circuits

  1. Circuitry for Rod Signals
  2. Cone pathways through the retina
  3. Roles of Amacrine Cells
  4. AII Amacrine Cells. By Mahnoosh Farsaii and Victoria P. Connaughton.
  5. Midget Pathways of the primate retina underly resolution
  6. S-cone pathways
  7. Feedback Loops

 

PART 4:

 

Neurotransmitters in the Retina

  1. General characteristics
  2. The neurotransmitter of neurons of the vertical pathways through the retina is glutamate
  3. Gamma aminobutyric acid
  4. Glycine
  5. Dopamine is present in amacrine cells in the mammalian retina
  6. Acetylcholine
  7. Serotonin
  8. Adenosine may be a retinal neurotransmitter
  9. Substance P occurs in an amacrine type and a ganglion cell type
  10. Other neuropeptides
  11. NADPH-diaphorase staining and the possibility that there are nitric oxide containing neurons in the retina
  12. Amacrine cell populations and mosaics arrangements are revealed by neurotransmitter immunocytochemistry
  13. References

 

PART 5:

 

Bipolar cell pathways in the vertebrate retina. by Ralph Nelson and Vikki P. Connaughton

  1. Introduction
  2. Different glutamate receptor types
  3. ON and OFF stratification
  4. Electrical properties
  5. Behavioral and clinical implications
  6. Visual processing under pharmacological blockade
  7. Summary and conclusions
  8. References

 

PART 6: 

 

Development of cell types and synaptic connections in the retina. by Josh Morgan and Rachel Wong.

  1. Introduction
  2. Sequence of circuit assembly in the vertebrate retina
  3. Structural assembly
  4. Development of pre- and postsynaptic processes
  5. Functional assembly
  6. Development of synaptic connectivity
  7. Spontaneous activity
  8. Light responses
  9. Summary  

 

PART 7:

 

Color Vision. by Peter Gouras

 

PART 8: 

 

Psychophysics of Vision. by Michael Kalloniatis and Charles Luu

 PART 9:

 

Primary Visual Cortex. by Matthew Schmolesky

 

PART 10:  

 

Regeneration in the visual system of adult mammals. by Yves Sauve and Frederic Gaillard

  1. Introduction
  2. Reconstruction of Primary Visual Pathways
  3. Requirements for recovery of function following lesions of CNS pathways
  4. Promoting the survival of axotomized RGCs
  5. Promoting the growth of axotomized RGC axons
  6. Guidance of regenerating RGC axons towards their appropriate target
  7. Arborization and synapse formation by RGC axons regenerating into their CNS targets
  8. Generation of action potentials in target neurons
  9. Restoration of retinotopy
  10. Preservation of local and downstream circuitry
  11. Evidence for some level of recovery of function in the PN-bridged retinofugal pathways
  12. Visual Function Assessment
  13. References

 

PARY 11: 

 

The Electroretinogram: ERG. by Ido Perlman

  1. Historical view
  2. The electrical basis of ERG recordings
  3. The origin of the major ERG waves
  4. Additional minor components of the ERG
  5. Summary of the ERG components
  6. Factors affecting the ERG
  7. Analysis of the ERG
  8. References

     

    PART 12:

     

    The Electroretinogram: Clinical Applications. by Donnell Creel

    1. Introduction
    2. The electroretinogram ERG
    3. ERG recording electrodes
    4. Light stimulation for ERGs
    5. ERG recording methods
    6. Oscillatory potentials OPs
    7. ERGs in retinitis pigmentosa-like diseases
    8. The ERG in cone dystrophies
    9. ERGS in retinal vascular disease
    10. Foreign bodies and trauma
    11. Drug toxicities
    12. Systemic disorders and the ERG
    13. The multifocal ERG mfERG
    14. The electrooculogram EOG
    15. References


      PART 13: 

       

      Age-Related Macular Degeneration. by Gregory S. Hageman, Karen Gehrs, Lincoln V. Johnson and Don Anderson

        1. Introduction
        2. Clinical Aspects of AMD
        3. Pathology of AMD
        4. Physiology of Early AMD
        5. Inflammation and AMD
        6. The Complement System and AMD
        7. Molecular Genetics of AMD
        8. Therapy for AMD
        9. Conclusion
        10. References

       

      PART  14:

       

      Facts and figures concerning the Human Retina.

      1. Facts and figures concerning the human retina


         

       

       

      Tanks to: WEB VISION

       

       

      http://webvision.med.utah.edu/

       

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