CLS 422

his course will provide the student with the basic knowledge of the theory and practical aspect in the diagnosis of tumour cells and non-malignant conditions. This can be achieved by microscopic examination of smears prepared from exfoliated cells or fine needle aspirated material. The course will enable the student to identify through the microscope, the normal and malignant cells by which malignant tumours can be diagnosed. The students also will be trained in the different technical methods applied in smears preparation and self precautives from contacting infections

CLS 422:   Lectures Outline
Weeks                                               Subjects 
1,2.                            Introduction to cytology
           The anatomy & histology of the female genital tract
3.                               The normal constituents of Pap-smear
                                  The normal cytology of female genital tract and other
                                   cells of the body
3.                               Hormonal Cytology
4,5,6.                         Inflammation: Criteria and causes
                                  Diagnostic cytology of different inflammatory
7.                               Premalignant and Malignant criteria
8.                               Diagnosis of malignancy in Pap smear  “cytology of
                                  malignant cells”
9.              Introduction to non-gynaecology cytology and the diagnosis
      of neoplastic and non- neoplastic cells from many parts of the body
10.             Sputum, bronchial wash and bronchial brush cytology
11.              Body fluids cytology “cytology of serous effusion”
12.                Fine needle aspiration cytology (general information)
13.                 Urine, oral and C.S.F cytology
CLS 422:   Laboratory Schedule
Weeks                                               Subjects
1.                                 Introduction to cytology laboratory work
2.                                 Screening histology and cytology slide of the normal
                                    cellular constituents of Pap smear
3.                                 Papanicoloau staining method and screening cytology
                                    Slides for normal cytology
4.                                 Practice screening of hormonal cytology
5.                                 Screening abnormal (inflammatory) cervical smears
                                    and identifying the causes of inflammation
6,7.                              Screening smears and identifying benign and
                                     malignant cells
8.                                 Smear preparation from sputum and non-
                                    gynaecological samples
9.                                 Screening smears for the identification of malignant
                                    cells in sputum, bronchial wash and bronchial brush
10.                               Screening body fluid smears for malignant cell
11.                               Urine cytology, Oral cytology, C.S.F cytology
12.                               Final staining exam (specimen is taken from oral
                                    buccal cavity)
13.                               REVISION 
14.                               FINAL PRACTICAL EXAM 
First Mid Term Examination:          15       
Second Mid Term Examination:    15
Laboratory Quizzes:                                    5
Mid Term Practical Examination:  5
Final Practical Examination:          20
Final Theoretical Examination:     40
Chandra Grubb, Diagnostic Cytopathology, Churchill Livingstone, London &New York.

Course Materials