Saudi children and their mothers’ reasoning about exclusion

Conference Paper
Alsamih, Munirah . 2017
نوع عمل المنشور: 
اسم المؤتمر: 
SRCD Biennial Meeting
عنوان المؤتمر: 
SRCD Biennial Meeting
تاريخ المؤتمر: 
الخميس, نيسان (أبريل) 6, 2017
مستخلص المنشور: 

Children’s peer exclusion or rejection based on group identity (Brenick & Romano, in press; Killen et al., 2002; Malti, Killen, & Gasser, 2012; Møller & Tenenbaum, 2011) is related to lower academic and psychological adjustment (Coei, Lochman, Terry, & Hyman, 1992; DeRosier, Kupersmidt, & Patterson, 1994). Previous research on exclusion has focused on children in the US and Europe with little work conducted in Arab nations (for an exception, see Brenick et al., 2010). To extend this line of research to different cultures, the current study focuses on exclusion amongst Saudi children based on religion and sect (Muslim and Non-Muslim; Sunni and Shia).In addition, past research has not compared mothers and children.
The participants consisted of 60 (24 boy; 36 girls) Saudi children (Sunni) and their mothers. There were 20 children in grade 2 (M= 8.51 years, SD= .51 months), 20 children in grade 4 (M=10.55 years, SD= .51 months), and 20 children in grade 6 (M=12.40, SD= .50). Twenty-four of the children were boys, and 36 were girls. Of the mothers, 38% had a university degree, three mothers held a postgraduate degree, nearly 31% of them finished high school, four mothers attended intermediate school, and only one mother was non-educatedThe participants were of middle-class socioeconomic status, and they were recruited on a volunteer basis.
Eight vignettes were read to the children and mothers separately, which asked their opinion about the acceptability of excluding a Shia or a Sunni, a Muslim or a non-Muslim by either a peer or a father. After each vignette the participants were asked whether or not it was ok to exclude a child from “a lot” or “a little”.
We conducted correlational analyses and found that mothers’ and children’s answers were related on two out of the eight comparisons (see Table 1).
We also compared mothers and children’s answers. Because of non-normality of the data, analyses were conducted using Wilcoxon (non-parametric test) to compare mothers and children on the comparisons of interest. Firstly, children were more likely than mothers to judge the exclusion as acceptable when the perpetrator was a peer, z= - 2.43, p = .02. Secondly, children were more likely than mothers to accept the exclusion when the perpetrator was the father, z= - 3.50, p = .0001. Thirdly, children were more likely than mothers to accept the exclusion of an outgroup child, z= -4.22, p = .0001. Finally, mothers and children’s judgments of exclusion did not differ significantly when the excluded was an in-group child, z= - 1.60, p = .12.
The findings suggest some similarities in reasoning about exclusion between mothers and children as suggested by Degner and Dalage (2013), but also some important differences. The findings will be interpreted in relation to socialization of children in this socio-cultural context.
Table 1
Correlations between mothers’ and children’s judgements

r          Vignette
20 Sunni is excluded by Shias 
003 Shia is excluded by Sunnis
.40** Non-Muslim is excluded by Muslims
-.10 Muslim  is excluded non-Muslims
.04 Shia father excludes Sunnis
.10 Sunni father excludes Shias
.30* Non-Muslim father excludes Muslims
.24 Muslim father excludes non-Muslims
 *correlation is significant at the 0.05 level; **correlation is significant at the 0.01 level.