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تحميل الدليل التدريبي

أسئلة شائعة

CLN 101:  Clinical Chemistry for Nursing

Credit Hours (2+2)


Laboratory safety. Laboratory calculations, acids, bases and pH value. Chemical and physical techniques. Structure and properties of amino acids and proteins, analysis of serum proteins, biuret method for total proteins, estimation of serum albumin. Structure, classification and properties of carbohydrates, various tests for their analysis, determination of glucose in blood and urine. Definition, properties and classification of lipids. Iodine number, saponification value, acid value. Estimation of blood cholesterol and serum fatty acids. Structure and function of nucleic acids, DNA and RNA. Vitamins and their role in human health, water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins and their recommended dietary requirements.






LABORATORY SAFETY: Physical hazards, chemical hazards, biological hazards, spillage and waste disposal, first aid. 



LABORATORY CALCULATIONS: Weights and concentrations, conversion of units, percent concentration, molarity, molality, normality, specific gravity. 



ACIDS, BASES & pH VALUE: Definitions and acids and bases, dissociation constant, pH value, Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, buffer solutions. 



CHEMICAL & PHYSICAL TECHNIQUES: Centrifugation, principle of sedimentation, RCF and RPM, types of centrifuges. Spectrophotometry, Beer-Lambert law, absorbance and transmittance, qualitative and quantitative anslysis. Chromatography, partition coefficient, stationary and mobile phases, types of chromatography, adsorption, partition, ion-exchange and gel permeation chromatographies, overview of TLC, PC, HPLC and GC. Electrophoresis, agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA, SDS-PAGE of proteins. 



AMINO ACIDS & PROTEINS: Amino acids are building blocks of proteins, essential amino acids, amphoteric properties, isoelectric point, optical property. Peptide bond, dipeptide, tripeptide and oligopeptide. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins. Analysis of serum proteins, biuret method for total proteins, estimation of serum albumin. 



CARBOHYDRATES: Definition and classification of carbohydrates. Monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, aldoses and ketoses. Fischer and Haworth projections, cyclic structures. Isomerism, epimers, stereoisomers, enantiomers, optical isomers, anomers, mutarotation. Glycosidic linkages. Analysis of carbohydrates, qualitative and quantitative tests. Molisch test, Benedict’s test for reducing sugars, Barfoed’s test for monosaccharides, Lasker and Enkelwitz test for ketoses, Bial’s test for pentoses, mucic acid test for galactose, iodine test for starch and glycogen. Quantitative analysis of glucose in blood, hexokinase and glucose oxidase method. Determination of glucose in urine. 



LIPIDS: Definition, classification and importance of lipids. Simple lipids, complex lipids and derived lipids. Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, essential fatty acids. Triacylglycerol, phosphoglycerides, sphingolipids and steroids. Analysis of lipids, iodine number, saponification value, acid value. Estimation of blood cholesterol and serum fatty acids. 



NUCLEIC ACIDS: Structure and function of nucleic acids, DNA and RNA. Nitrogenous bases, nucleosides, nucleotides and base pairing. Watson and Crick double helix model of DNA.  


VITAMINS: Role of vitamins in human health. Water-soluble vitamins, vitamin B1 (thiamine), vitamin B2 (riboflavin), niacin, pyridoxine, pantothenic acid, biotin, folic acid, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) and vitamin C (ascorbic acid). Fat-soluble vitamins, vitamin A, D, E and K. Diseases due to deficiency of various vitamins. Recommended dietary requirement of vitamins.


Recommended Book:

Chemistry for Health Sciences by Sackheim and Lehman, 8th Edition, Prentice Hall.


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