Adjectives and Adverbs
Adjectives: An adjective describes a noun. In the sentence, Ann is a careful driver, careful describes driver. See the examples below.
. My hometown is small and quiet. Small and quiet in the sentence describe my hometown.
. The teacher asked an easy question. Easy here describes the question.
Adverbs: An adverb describes the action of a verb. In the sentence, John drives fast, fast describes the action of the verb drives. See the examples below.
. Anna pronounces every word clearly. Clearly describes how Anna pronounces every word.
. My brother speaks English fluently. Fluently describes how my brother speaks English.
How to Form Adverbs?
. Most adverbs are formed by adding –ly to an adjective. See the table below.
. When the adjective ends in –y, change –y to –i before adding –ly.
. The adjective from and the adverb form are the same for fast, hard, early, late.
. The adverb is completely different from the adjective.
Exercise: Complete the sentences by using the adjective or adverb.
quiet, quietly 1. Mr. Wilson whispered. He spoke --------------.
careless, carelessly 2. Boris makes a lot of mistakes when he writes. He is a ------------ writer.
careless, carelessly 3. Boris writes -----------------.
good, well 4. Your English is very ----------------.
correct, correctly 5. Carmen gave the --------------- answer to the question
Making Comparisons of Adjectives and Adverbs:
When we make comparisons, we compare two or more people or things. There are several ways to make comparisons.
1. Comparisons with … -er than
We use the pattern adjective or adverb + -er than to form comparisons of most one-syllable adjectives and adverbs.
One-syllable adjectives and adverbs comparatives
old older than
cheap cheaper than
fast faster than
hard harder than
small smaller than
big bigger than
Read the following examples:
- Noura is older than Sara.
- This market is cheaper than the others.
- You drive faster than my brother does.
- English is harder than Arabic.
- The living room is bigger than the kitchen.
2. Comparisons with more … than
We use the pattern more + adjective or adverb + than to make comparisons of most adjectives and adverbs that have two or more syllables.
Adjectives and adverbs with two or more syllables comparatives
expensive more expensive than
important more important than
interesting more interesting than
carefully more carefully than
fluently more fluently than
comfortable more comfortable than
Read the following examples:
- This restaurant is more expensive than the other restaurant.
- Breakfast is more important than dinner.
- This book is more interesting than that book.
- He drives more carefully than his brother does.
- My sister speaks English more fluently than I do.
3. Comparisons of adjectives and adverbs that end in –y
Adjectives and adverbs that end in –y comparatives
pretty prettier than
easy easier than
early earlier than
noisy noisier than
4. Comparisons with as … as
We can also use the pattern as + adjective or adverb + as to make comparisons. In this structure, affirmative sentences compare things that are the same in some way. Negative sentences compare things that are different in some way.
Read the affirmative sentences:
- You are as busy as I am.
- Noura is as tall as her brother.
- This dress is as pretty as that one.
- You write as neatly as I do.
Read the negative sentences below:
- Ahmed is not as old as Ali.
- This book is not as expensive as that book.
- You do not type as rapidly as I do.
- My brother does not work as hard as my father does.
- My child does not sleep as well as your child does.
5. Comparisons with less … than
We use the pattern less + adjective or adverb + than to form comparisons. Less is the opposite of more. Less is used with adjectives or adverbs that have two or more syllables.
See the examples below:
- A pencil is less expensive than a pen.
- This chair is less comfortable than that chair.
- Brown rice cooks less quickly than white rice.
Irregular Forms of Comparisons:
(adj.) good better than the best
(adv.) well better than the best
(adj.) bad worse than the worst
(adv.) badly worse than the worst
- Ahmed is a good builder.
- Ali is a better builder than Ahmed is. (comparative of the adjective: good)
- Faisal is the best builder of all. (superlative of the adjective: good)
- You speak English well.
- Your sister speaks English better than you do. (comparative of the adverb: well)
- Your brother speaks English the best of all. (superlative of the adverb: well)
- Sara is a bad child.
- Noura is worse than Sara is. (comparative of the adjective: bad)
- Mona is the worst of all. (superlative of the adjective: bad)
The superlative compares three or more things or people. To form the superlative, we use two patterns.
With one-syllable adjectives or adverbs we use the pattern the + adjective or adverb+ -est at the end of the word. With adjectives or adverbs that have two or more syllables, we use the pattern the most + adjective or adverb (of all).
1. One syllable adjectives and adverbs
Adjective or Adverb Comparative Superlative
old older than the oldest
hard harder than the hardest
small smaller than the smallest
big bigger than the biggest
Adjectives and adverbs with two or more syllables
important more important than the most important
expensive more expensive than the most expensive
fluently more fluently than the most fluently
slowly more slowly than the most slowly
Notice the examples below:
- Karen drives more carefully than her brother does.
- Peter drives the most carefully of the three.
- Noura is older than Sara is.
- Reem is the oldest of all.
Read again the superlative of the irregular forms: good, well, bad, and badly found on the previous page.