KSU Faculty Member websites > اشرف السيد محمدى خاطر > Publications
Publications
 

Chapter in a book:

 

  • Khater Ashraf, 2006 “Radiation Detection Methods” in: Nollet, L. and Poschl, M., “Concentration of Radionuclides in Food and the environment: Prevention and Human Health. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York.

 

Paper presented in Conferences:

 

  1. ·        Ibrahiem N., Mohamady A., Fadal M., Experimental study on the biological half-life of Cs-137 in Rates, Medical Biophysics conference, Cairo, 1990.
  2. ·        R. Higgy, Khater A., M. El-Tahawy and M. Pimpl. Fallout radionuclides in Egyptian Lakes sediment, environmental protection conference, Landau – Germany, 1998.
  3. ·        M. El-Tahawy and Khater A.,  Radioactivity levels in Bardawill Lake, Egypt, International Conference on Marine Monitoring, Monaco, 1999.
  4. ·        R. Higgy, Khater A., M. El-Tahawy and M. Pimpl. Plutonium isotopes and Cs-137 in Lake Sediment, Egypt, International Conference on waste management, Cairo, 1999
  5. ·        Khater A., R. Higgy and M. Pimpl. Radioactivity levels in Abu-Tartor Phosphate mine and the surrounding region, New Valley – Egypt, International Conference on waste management, Cairo, 1999.
  6. ·        Khater A., Po-210 source and sink in some Egytpian  cigarettes. 5Th International  conf. on high levels of natural radiation and radon areas, Munich- Germany, Sept. 4-7, 2000.
  7. ·        Khater A., Pb-210 in Marine samples. 5th International  conf. on high levels of natural radiation and radon areas, Munich- Germany, Sept. 4-7, 2000.
  8. ·        Germany, 21-23  Oct. 2002.
  9. ·        Khater A., Lead-210 specific activity in fish and dose assessment. International Conference on Radioactivity in the Environment, Monaco, 1-5 Sept., 2002. 
  10. ·         Khater A., Environmental fallout flux and budget of Lead-210 in sediments International Conference on Radioactivity in the Environment, Monaco, 1-5 Sept., 2002.
  11. ·         Khater A., Ebaid Y., El-Mongy S. and El Tahawy M., Determination of 239+240Pu and 238Pu using destructive techniques. IAEA-CN-98/5/06P. International conference on the advances in destructive and non destructive analysis for environmental monitoring and nuclear forensics, Karlsruhe, Geremany. 
  12. ·        Khater Ashraf, Ebaid Yasser, El Mongy Sayed. Distribution pattern of natural radionuclies in Nasser Lake environment . 6th  International of High Natural Radiation Level Area and Radon, Sept. 6-10, 2004, Osaka-Japan.
  13. ·        Swaidan H., Abd EL Aziz N., Khater A., Radioactivity contents in Tobacco. 6th International of High Natural Radiation Level Area and Radon, Sept. 6-10, 2004, Osaka-Japan.
  14. ·        Khater Ashraf, Al-Sewaidan Hamed. Polonium-210 in cigarettes tobacco. 4th Lowrad International Conference, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, on the 22nd to 24th of June 2005.
  15. ·        Al-Sewaidan Hamed, Khater Ashraf, S. U. El-Kameesy. ”Radiation exposure due to agricultural uses of phosphate fertilizers in Saudi Arabia”, 2nd International conference on Radioactivity in the Environment, 2-6 Oct. 2005, Nice- France.
  16.        Khater Ashraf,  Bakr W.F. "Technologically enhanced Pb-210 and Po-210 in iron and steel industry. International conference on Radioecology & Environmental Radioactivity, 15-20 Jun, 2008, Bergen- Norway
  17.       Khater Ashraf , N. Abd El-Aziz, H.A. Al-Sewaidan, Kamal Chaouachi Radiological Assessment of Narghile Smoking. International conference on Radioecology & Environmental Radioactivity, 15-20 Jun, 2008, Bergen- Norway
  18.       Khater Ashraf, Hamed A.I. Al-Sewaidan, A. Al-Saif, H. Diab. Effect of soil properties on natural radionuclides concentration in aird environment: case study.  International conference on Radioecology & Environmental Radioactivity, 15-20 Jun, 2008, Bergen- Norway
  19.      Khater Ashraf. Uraniun and heavy metals in phosphate fertilizers. International conference on Radioecology & Environmental Radioactivity, 15-20 Jun, 2008, Bergen- Norway
  20.      Ebaid Yasser, Khater Ashraf. Spectial distribution and environmnetal behavior of atmospheric fallout 210pb and 137Cs in Qarun Lake sediments. International conference on Radioecology & Environmental Radioactivity, 15-20 Jun, 2008, Bergen- Norway
  21.       Khater Ashraf, A. Al-Saif, Hamed A.I. Al-Sewaidan. Uranium accumulation in sandy soil in an arid region due to agricultural activities. 5Th international conference on uranium mining and hydrogeology, Freiberg- Germany, 14-18 Sept., 2008.
  22.     Khater Ashraf. Uranium and heavy metals in phosphate fertilizers. 5Th international conference on uranium mining and hydrogeology, Freiberg- Germany, 14-18 Sept., 2008.
  23.      Khater Ashraf. Uranium partationing during water treatment processes. 5Th international conference on uranium mining and hydrogeology, Freiberg- Germany, 14-18 Sept., 2008.
  24.  

 

Papers published in journals:

 

  1. ·         Ibrahium N., El-Ghany A., Mohamdy A., Shawky S., Farouk M., “Measurement of radioactivity levels in the Nile Delta and Middle Egypt”, Health Physics, 65(6), 1993, 620-627.
  2. ·         Khater A., R. Higgy and M. Pimpl. Radiological impacts of natural radioactivity in Abu-Tartor phosphate deposites, Egypt. Environmental radioactivity, 55 (2001) 255-267.
  3. ·         Khater A., Abdel-Aziz  M.and Sadek, M., Chemical, Isotopic and Radiological Aspects and Origin of the thermal waters in the North of Egypt. Isotope and Radiation Research , 33(3), 397-418, 2001
  4. ·         Khater A., Radiological aspects of some Egyptian thermo-mineral springs, Journal of Environmental Monitoring 5, 414-418, 2003
  5. ·         El Mamony M. and Khater A., Environmental characterization and radiological impacts of non-nuclear industries on the Red Sea Coast, Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, vol. 73, 151-168, 2004
  6. ·         Khater A, M.A. Hussein and M. I. Hussein., Occupational exposure of Abu-Tartor phosphate mine workers: Airborne radioactivity measurements and dose assessment. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 75,47-57, 2004
  7. ·         Khater A., Po-210 budget in cigarettes. Journal of environmental Radioactivity, 71, 33-41, 2004.
  8. ·         N. Abd El-Aziz, A.E.M. Khater and H.A. Al-Sewaidan Natural radioactivity contents in tobacco. International Congress Series, Volume 1276, ,407-408, 2005
  9. ·         Ashraf E. Khater, Yasser Y. Ebaid and Sayed A. El-Mongy, Distribution pattern of natural radionuclides in Lake Nasser bottom sediments. International Congress Series, 1276, 405-406, 2005. 
  10.   Khater Ashraf, H.A. Al-Sewaidan, 2006. Polonium-210 in cigarettes tobacco. Int. J. Low Radiation,vol 3 (2/3), 224-233.
  11. Yasser Y. Ebaid and Khater Ashraf. Determination of lead-210 in environmental samples using different radio-analytical techniques. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry Vol. 269, No. 3, 2006, 609-619.
  12.  Khater Ashraf, Y. Y. Ebaid A Simplified Gamma-Ray Self-ttenuation Correction in Bulk Samples.  Appl. Radiat. Isotopes 66 (3),407-413, 2008.
  13.  Khater Ashraf, H.A. Al-Sewaidan. Radiation exposure due to agricultural uses of phosphate fertilizers. Radiation Measurement 43 (8), 1402-1407, 2008.
  14. Khater Ashraf, Al-said Nawal, Al-Sewaidan Hamed,Chaouchi Kamal. Radiological hazards of narghile (Hookah, Shisha, Goza) smoking: Specific activities and dose assessment.  J. Environmental Radioactivity (2008). doi:10.1016/j.jenvrad.2008.07.005 
  15. Radioactivity levels and radiological hazard indices at the Saudi coastline of the Gulf of Aqaba  Radiation Physics and Chemistry, Volume 80, Issue 3, March 2011, Pages 343-348
    H.A. Al-Trabulsy, A.E.M. Khater, F.I. Habbani
  16. Technologically enhanced 210Pb and 210Po in iron and steel industry Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volume 102, Issue 5, May 2011, Pages 527-530
    Ashraf E.M. Khater, Wafaa F. Bakr
  17. Heavy elements concentrations, physiochemical characteristics and natural radionuclides levels along the Saudi coastline of the Gulf of Aqaba  Original Research Article
    Arabian Journal of Chemistry, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 8 October 2010
    Hussain A.M. Al-Trabulsy, Ashraf E.M. Khater, Farouq I. Habbani


 

Internal Report- Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority:

 

·         El-Tahawy M., Ashraf Mohamady, Ibrahium N., Farouk M., Natural potassium as a standard source for absolute efficiency calibration of Germanium Detector, AEA internal report 134, 1992.

·         El-Tahawy M., Ashraf Mohamady, Ibrahium N., Farouk M Measurement of radioactivity levels in soil and vegetation in Middle Egypt, internal report 150,1993.

·         Higgy R., Khater A., Pimpl M., Procedures manual, Radiochemical analysis of certain naturally occuring and man-made radionuclides in environmental samples, AEA Internal Report No 310, 2003.

 

Papers under publication

 

·        Khater Ashraf, H.A. Al-Sewaidan, A. Al-Saif. Status and dynamic of natural radionuclides in cultivated soil (under publication)

·         Khater Ashraf " Natural radionuclides in bottled drinking water" (under publication).

·          Khater Ashraf. and El Tahawy M., Monitoring of radioactivity levels in Qarun Lake, Egypt, (under publication).

·         Ebaid Yasser, Khater Ashraf, El Mongy Sayed. Radioecological study on the Nasser Lake. (Under Publication)

·         Khater Ashraf, Wicke A. In-Situ gamma spectrometry: A powerful tool for environmental monitoring. (Under Publication)

 

 

 

ABSTRACTS AND REFERENCES

 



Khater, A.E.M.a b , Abd El-Aziz, N.S.a , Al-Sewaidan, H.A.b , Chaouachi, K.c

 Radiological hazards of Narghile (hookah, shisha, goza) smoking: activity concentrations and dose assessment

(2008) Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 99 (12), pp. 1808-1814. 

a National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt, b Physics Department, College of Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, 11451 Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, c DIU Tobaccology, University of Paris XI-XII, France

Abstract
 
Narghile (hookah, shisha, goza, "water-pipe") smoking has become fashionable worldwide. Its tobacco pastes, known as moassel and jurak, are not standardized and generally contain about 30-50% (sometimes more) tobacco, molasses/juice of sugarcane, various spices and dried fruits (particularly in jurak) and, in the case of moassel, glycerol and flavoring essences. Tobacco contains minute amounts of radiotoxic elements such as 210Pb, 210Po and uranium, which are inhaled via smoking. Only very few data have been published on the concentrations of natural radionuclides in narghile tobacco mixtures. Consequently, the aim of this study was to draw first conclusions on the potential hazards of radioactivity in moassel tobacco in relation to narghile smoking. The results indicate the existence of a wide range in the radioactivity contents where the average (range) activity concentrations of 238U, 234Th 226Ra, 210Pb, 210Po, 232Th and 40K, in Bq/kg dry weight were 55 (19-93), 11 (3-23), 3 (1.2-8), 14 (3-29), 13 (7-32), 7 (4-10) and 719 (437-1044) Bq/kg dry weight, respectively. The average concentrations of natural radionuclides in moassel tobacco pastes are comparable to their concentration in Greek cigarettes and tobacco leaves, and lower than that of Brazilian tobacco leaves. The distribution pattern of these radionuclides after smoking, between smoke, ash and filter, is unknown, except for 210Po during cigarette smoking and from one existing study during moassel smoking. Radiological dose assessment due to intake of natural radionuclides was calculated and the possible radio-toxicity of the measured radionuclides is briefly discussed. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Author Keywords
Dose assessment;  Hookah;  Moassel;  Narghile;  Radionuclides;  Shisha;  Smoking;  Tobacco

Index Keywords
Actinides, Atmospheric radioactivity, Concentration (process), Curing, Glycerol, Hazardous materials, Lead, Lead alloys, Radiation, Radioactivity, Radioisotopes, Radiometry, Tobacco, Transuranium elements, Uranium; Dose assessment, Hookah, Moassel, Narghile, Radionuclides, Shisha; Agricultural products; polonium, radioisotope; concentration (composition), radioactivity, smoking, tobacco; article, Brazil, cigarette smoking, health hazard, radiation dose, radiation hazard, radioactivity, tobacco; Nicotiana tabacum

Chemicals/CAS
polonium, 13981-52-7, 7440-08-6

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Adam, T., Baker, R.R., Zimmermann, R.
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Al-Arifi, M.N.
Estimating of the amount of 210Po released with the smoke stream into smoker's lung from cigarette tobacco and some smoking pastes in Saudi Arabia
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Baker, R.R., Dixon, M.
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The medical consequences of narghile (hookah, shisha) use in the world
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Chaouachi, K.
The narghile (hookah, shisha, goza) epidemic and the need for clearing up confusion and solving problems related with model building of social situations
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Chaouachi, K.
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Desideri, D., Meli, A., Feduzi, L., Roseli, C.
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Diab, H.M., El-Tahawy, M.S., El-Mongy, S.A.
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Natural radioactivity content of Greek cigarettes
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Polonium-210 budget in cigarettes
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Polonium-210 in cigarettes tobacco
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ISSN: 0265931X
CODEN: JERAE
DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvrad.2008.07.005
Language of Original Document: English
Abbreviated Source Title: J. Environ. Radioact.
Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus
 
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Khater, A.E.M.a b , AL-Sewaidan, H.A.b

Radiation exposure due to agricultural uses of phosphate fertilizers

(2008) Radiation Measurements, 43 (8), pp. 1402-1407. 



a National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt
b Physics Department, College of Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 1145, Saudi Arabia

Abstract
Radiological impacts of phosphate rocks mining and manufacture could be significant due to the elevated radioactivity contents of the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), such as 238U series, 232Th series and 40K, in some phosphate deposits. Over the last decades, the land reclamation and agriculture activities in Saudi Arabia and other countries have been widely expanded. Therefore, the usage of chemical fertilizers is increased. Selected phosphate fertilizers samples were collected and the specific activities of NORM were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer based on a hyper pure germanium detector and alpha spectrometer based on surface barrier detector. The obtained results show remarkable wide variations in the radioactivity contents of the different phosphate fertilizer samples. The mean (ranges) of specific activities for 226Ra, 210Po, 232Th and 40K, and radium equivalent activity are 75 (3-283), 25 (0.5-110), 23 (2-74), 2818 (9-6501) Bq/kg and 283 (7-589) Bq/kg, respectively. Based on dose calculations, the increment of the public radiation exposure due to the regular agricultural usage of phosphate fertilizers is negligible. Its average value 1 m above the ground is about 0.12 nGy/h where the world average value due to the NORM in soil is 51 nGy/h. Direct radiation exposures of the farmers due to phosphate fertilizers application was not considered in our study. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Index Keywords
Land use, Nuclear physics, Phosphate deposits, Radioactive materials, Radioactivity; Naturally occurring radioactive materials, Phosphate rocks, Radiation exposures, Radiological impacts; Phosphate fertilizers

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ISSN: 13504487
CODEN: RMEAE
DOI: 10.1016/j.radmeas.2008.04.084
Language of Original Document: English
Abbreviated Source Title: Radiat. Meas.
Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus

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Khater, A.E.M.a b , Ebaid, Y.Y.c
 
A simplified gamma-ray self-attenuation correction in bulk samples

 
(2008) Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 66 (3), pp. 407-413. 



a National Centre for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt
b Physics Department, College of Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, 11451 Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
c Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Fayum University, Fayum, Egypt

Abstract
Gamma-ray spectrometry is a very powerful tool for radioactivity measurements. For accurate gamma-ray spectrometry, certain correction measures should be considered, for instance, systematic uncertainty in the photo-peak efficiency due to the differences between the matrix (density and chemical composition) of the reference and the other bulk samples. Therefore, gamma-ray attenuation correction factors are of major concern for precise gamma-ray spectrometry. Simple practical correction for the photo-peak efficiency, due to discrepancies in both the samples' matrices and densities (self-attenuation), is performed in this study. This study suggests a brief measurement of relative photons transmission through both reference and unknown bulk samples where the variations of photon transmissions are assumed to be linearly correlated to the samples' densities. Specific correction factors would be produced for each analyzed sample to be considered when their activities are calculated. Practically, the suggested method was verified and succeeded in improving the obtained results. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Author Keywords
Attenuation correction;  Bulk sample;  Gamma-ray spectrometry

Index Keywords
Photons, Quantum efficiency, Radioactivity measurement, Uncertainty analysis; Attenuation correction, Bulk samples, Photo peak efficiency, Photon transmissions; Gamma ray spectrometers; article, bulk density, gamma radiation, measurement, photon, priority journal

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Monte Carlo simulation of the self-absorption correction for natural samples in gamma-ray spectrometry
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ISSN: 09698043
CODEN: ARISE
DOI: 10.1016/j.apradiso.2007.10.007
Language of Original Document: English
Abbreviated Source Title: Appl. Radiat. Isot.
Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus


############################################################ 
 
Ebaid, Y.Y.a , Khater, A.E.M.b c d
 
Determination of 210Pb in environmental samples

 
(2006) Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 270 (3), pp. 609-619. Cited 1 time.



a Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Fayum, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
b National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt
c Physics Department, College of Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
d Physics Department, College of Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia

Abstract
Measurement of 210Pb has gained a highly scientific attention due to its wide range of environmental applications. The most commonly used analytical techniques: gamma-spectrometry, beta-counting and alpha-spectrometry were used to measure environmental samples (geological, soil, sediment). Our paper is aiming at comparing the capabilities and limits of application of these three different analytical techniques for 210Pb measurement in various environmental samples. In addition, analytical data of 210Pb measurements with the three different techniques (gamma-spectrometry, beta-counting and alpha-spectrometry) are discussed to highlight the degree of comparability and the most probable sources of discrepancies and errors. Based on the demanded investigation, one analytical technique will be chosen for routine analysis, while the other techniques, if they are available, could be used for analytical quality assurance measures. It was essential to compare the analytical efficacy of each technique, which differ concerning the detection limit (MDA), sensitivity, analytical effort, the duration of analysis and waiting time before analysis. © 2006 Akadémiai Kiadó.

Index Keywords
lead 210; alpha radiation, analytic method, article, beta radiation, environmental radioactivity, gamma spectrometry, radiation detection, radiochemistry, radioisotope decay, radiosensitivity

Chemicals/CAS
lead 210, 14255-04-0

References
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Correspondence Address
Ebaid Y.Y.; Physics Department; Faculty of Science, Fayum; Cairo University Cairo, Egypt


ISSN: 02365731
CODEN: JRNCD
DOI: 10.1007/s10967-006-0470-5
Language of Original Document: English
Abbreviated Source Title: J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem.
Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus


 
 
Khater, A.E.M.a b , Al-Sewaidan, H.A.I.b
 
Polonium-210 in cigarette tobacco
 
(2006) International Journal of Low Radiation, 3 (2-3), pp. 224-233. Cited 1 time.



a National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control, Atomic Energy Authority, P.O. Box 7551, Nasr City, Cairo 11762, Egypt
b Physics Department, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia

Abstract
Tobacco and tobacco smoke contain minute amounts of some natural radionuclides such as 210Pb and 210Po, which are carcinogens. Intake of these radionuclides results in an increase of radiation doses to lung cells and tissues. Samples of the most frequently smoked cigarette brands were collected from the local market of Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia. Activity concentrations of 210Po were measured by alpha spectrometers, following the radiochemical separation of polonium. The average activity concentration (range) of 210Po was 15.1 (5.5-22.2) mBq/cigarette. Cigarette smokers who consume one pack (20 cigarettes) per day are inhaling an average of 151 mBq/day of 210Po and 210Pb each. The mean values of the annual effective dose for smokers (one pack per day) were estimated to be 237 and 309 μSv from 210Po and 210Pb, respectively. Copyright © 2006 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Author Keywords
Cigarette smoking;  Lead-210;  Polonium-210;  Radiation dose;  Saudi Arabia;  Tobacco

Index Keywords
lead 210, polonium, radioisotope; human, radiation dose, review, Saudi Arabia, smoking, spectrometry, tobacco

Chemicals/CAS
lead 210, 14255-04-0; polonium, 13981-52-7, 7440-08-6

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in press
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ISSN: 14776545
DOI: 10.1504/IJLR.2006.012022
Language of Original Document: English
Abbreviated Source Title: Int. J. Low Radiat.
Document Type: Review
Source: Scopus


 
Abd El-Aziz, N.a , Khater, A.E.M.a , Al-Sewaidan, H.A.b
Natural radioactivity contents in tobacco
(2005) International Congress Series, 1276, pp. 407-408. Cited 2 times.



a National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt
b Physics Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Abstract
Tobacco contains minute quantities of radioactive isotopes of uranium and thorium series (210Pb, 210Po and 226Ra), which are radioactive carcinogenic. Smoking of tobacco and its products increases the internal intake and radiation dose due to natural radionuclides. In a number of studies, inhalation of some naturally occurring radionuclides via smoking has been considered to be one of the most significant causes of lung cancer. In this work, Moasel tobacco samples were collected from the Saudi and Egypt markets. Natural radionuclides (234Th, 226Ra, 210Pb, 214Bi, 228Ac, 40K and 210Po) in tobacco were measured using γ-ray spectrometer and α-spectrometer. The measured data were presented and discussed. © 2005.

Author Keywords
Moasel;  Natural radioactivity;  Polonium;  Smoking;  Tobacco

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Editors: Sugahara T., Morishima H., Sohrabi M., Sasaki Y., Hayata I., Akiba S.

ISSN: 05315131
DOI: 10.1016/j.ics.2004.11.166
Language of Original Document: English
Abbreviated Source Title: Int. Congr. Ser.
Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus


 
Khater, A.E.a , Ebaid, Y.Y.b , El-Mongy, S.A.a
Distribution pattern of natural radionuclides in Lake Nasser bottom sediments
(2005) International Congress Series, 1276, pp. 405-406. 



a National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt
b Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Fayum, Egypt

Abstract
In Egypt, the Nile River water is the main source of water, providing nearly 95% of water requirements. The Nile water is impounded in Lake Nasser (LN) in the south of Egypt by the High Aswan Dam (HAD). In this study, we presented the radioactivity levels in LN sediments over the time period 1992-2000 and the distribution pattern of the measured radionuclides (238U series, 232Th series, 40K and 137Cs). In addition, the uranium concentration in water samples was measured. The distribution pattern of these radionuclides in sediments reflects the geochemical behavior and weathering processes of uranium series, thorium series and the heavy minerals in the Nile pathway and in Nasser Lake. © 2005.

Author Keywords
Laser flourimetry;  Nasser Lake;  Natural radioactivity;  Polonium;  Sediment;  Uranium

References
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Editors: Sugahara T., Morishima H., Sohrabi M., Sasaki Y., Hayata I., Akiba S.

ISSN: 05315131
DOI: 10.1016/j.ics.2004.11.112
Language of Original Document: English
Abbreviated Source Title: Int. Congr. Ser.
Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus


Khater, A.E., Hussein, M.A., Hussein, M.I.
Occupational exposure of phosphate mine workers: Airborne radioactivity measurements and dose assessment
(2004) Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 75 (1), pp. 47-57. Cited 3 times.



Natl. Ctr. Nucl. Safety Radiat. C., Atomic Energy Authority, P.O. Box 7551, Nasr City, Cairo 11762, Egypt

Abstract
Under the Egyptian program for radiation safety and control, airborne radioactivity measurements and radiological dose assessment were conducted in some phosphate and uranium mines. Abu-Tartor mine is one of the biggest underground phosphate mines in Egypt. Airborne radioactivity, radon ( 222Rn) and its short-lived decay products (progenies) and thoron (220Rn), were measured in selected locations along the mine. The environmental gamma and workers dose equivalent rate (mSv/y) were measured inside and outside the mine using thermo-luminescence dosimeters (TLD). The results were presented and discussed. The calculated annual effective dose due to airborne radioactivity is the main source of occupational exposure and exceeding the maximum recommended level by ICRP-60 inside the mine tunnels. A number of recommendations are suggested to control the occupational exposures. © 2004 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Author Keywords
Airborne Radioactivity;  Dose calculation;  Occupational exposure;  Phosphate

Index Keywords
Dosimetry, Electron tunneling, Mines, Uranium; Dose rates, Environmental gamma; Radioactivity; phosphate, radioactive material, radon, radon 220, uranium; mining, occupational exposure, radiation exposure, radioactivity, working conditions; air pollution, article, controlled study, Egypt, human, miner, mining, occupational exposure, occupational hazard, occupational safety, pollution monitoring, radiation dose, radiation hazard, radiation response, radioactivity, thermoluminescence dosimetry; Air Pollutants, Radioactive, Air Pollution, Indoor, Egypt, Environmental Monitoring, Humans, Mining, Occupational Exposure, Radon, Safety; Thoron

Chemicals/CAS
phosphate, 14066-19-4, 14265-44-2; radon 220, 22481-48-7; radon, 10043-92-2; uranium, 7440-61-1; Air Pollutants, Radioactive; Radon, 10043-92-2

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Correspondence Address
Khater A.E.; Natl. Ctr. Nucl. Safety Radiat. C.; Atomic Energy Authority; P.O. Box 7551 Nasr City, Cairo 11762, Egypt; email: khater_ashraf@yahoo.com


ISSN: 0265931X
CODEN: JERAE
DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvrad.2003.11.001
Language of Original Document: English
Abbreviated Source Title: J. Environ. Radioact.
Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus


El Mamoney, M.H.a , Khater, A.E.M.b c
Environmental characterization and radio-ecological impacts of non-nuclear industries on the Red Sea coast
(2004) Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 73 (2), pp. 151-168. Cited 12 times.



a Natl. Inst. of Oceanogr. and Fish., Alexandria, Egypt
b Natl. Ctr. Nucl. Safety Radiat. C., Atomic Energy Authority, PO Box 7551, Nasr City, Cairo 11762, Egypt
c King Saud University, College of Science, Physics Dept., P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia

Abstract
The Red Sea is a deep semi-enclosed and narrow basin connected to the Indian Ocean by a narrow sill in the south and to the Suez Canal in the north. Oil industries in the Gulf of Suez, phosphate ore mining activities in Safaga - Quseir region and intensified navigation activities are non-nuclear pollution sources that could have serious radiological impacts on the marine environment and the coastal ecosystems of the Red Sea. It is essential to establish the radiological base-line data, which does not exist yet, and to investigate the present radio-ecological impact of the non-nuclear industries to preserve and protect the coastal environment of the Red Sea. Some natural and man-made radionuclides have been measured in shore sediment samples collected from the Egyptian coast of the Red Sea. The specific activities of 226Ra and 210Pb (238U) series, 232Th series, 40K and 137Cs (Bq/kg dry weight) were measured using gamma ray spectrometers based on hyper-pure germanium detectors. The specific activities of 210Po (210Pb) and uranium isotopes ( 238U, 235U and 234U) (Bq/kg dry weight) were measured using alpha spectrometers based on surface barrier (PIPS) detectors after radiochemical separation. The absorbed radiation dose rates in air (nGy/h) due to natural radionuclides in shore sediment and radium equivalent activity index (Bq/kg) were calculated. The specific activity ratios of 228Ra/226Ra, 210Pb/226Ra, 226Ra/238U and 234U/238U were calculated for evaluation of the geo-chemical behaviour of these radionuclides. The average specific activity of 226Ra (238U) series, 232Th series, 40K and 210Pb were 24.7, 31.4, 427.5 and 25.6 Bq/kg, respectively. The concentration of 137Cs in the sediment samples was less than the lower limit of detection. The Red Sea coast is an arid region with very low rainfall and the sediment is mainly composed of sand. The specific activity of 238U, 235U and 234U were 25.3, 2.9 and 25.0 Bq/kg. The average specific activity ratios of 226Ra/228Ra, 210Pb/226Ra and 234U/238U were 1.67, 1.22 and 1.0, respectively. The relationship between 226Ra/228Ra activity ratio and sample locations along the coastal shoreline indicates the increase of this ratio in the direction of the Shuqeir in the north and Safaga in the south where the oil exploration and phosphate mining activities are located. These activities may contribute a high flux of 226Ra. The concentration and distribution pattern of 226Ra in sediment can be used to trace the radiological impact of the non-nuclear industries on the Red Sea coast. © 2003 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Author Keywords
Coastal environment;  Natural radioactivity;  Non-nuclear industries;  Red Sea

Index Keywords
Catchments, Coastal engineering, Crude petroleum, Ecology, Gamma rays, Germanium, Marine engineering, Radioisotopes, Radiology, Sediments, Separation, Spectrometry; Oil industries, Radioecology; Environmental engineering; cesium 137, germanium, lead 210, potassium 40, radioisotope, radium 226, radium 228, thorium 232, uranium 234, uranium 235, uranium 238; anthropogenic effect, background level, coastal zone, marine pollution, radionuclide; article, calculation, coastal waters, dry weight, Egypt, environmental protection, environmental radioactivity, gamma spectrometry, radiation detection, radioactive contamination, radiochemistry, sea pollution, sediment, separation technique, spectrometer; Egypt, Environment, Environmental Monitoring, Geography, Indian Ocean, Industry, Lead Radioisotopes, Polonium, Radioisotopes, Soil Pollutants, Radioactive, Spectrometry, Gamma, Uranium; Indian Ocean, Red Sea [Indian Ocean]

Chemicals/CAS
cesium 137, 10045-97-3; germanium, 7440-56-4; lead 210, 14255-04-0; potassium 40, 13966-00-2; radium 226, 13982-63-3; radium 228, 15262-20-1; thorium 232, 7440-29-1; uranium 234, 13966-29-5; uranium 235, 15117-96-1; Lead Radioisotopes; Polonium, 7440-08-6; Radioisotopes; Soil Pollutants, Radioactive; Uranium, 7440-61-1

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Correspondence Address
Khater A.E.M.; King Saud University; College of Science; Physics Dept.; P.O. Box 2455 Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia; email: khater_ashraf@yahoo.com


ISSN: 0265931X
CODEN: JERAE
DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvrad.2003.08.008
Language of Original Document: English
Abbreviated Source Title: J. Environ. Radioact.
Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus


Khater, A.E.M.
Polonium-210 budget in cigarettes
(2004) Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 71 (1), pp. 33-41. Cited 15 times.

Abstracts & References

Natl. Ctr. Nucl. Safety/Radiat. C., Atomic Energy Authority, P.O. Box 7551, Nasr City, Cairo 11762, Egypt

Abstract
Due to the relatively high activity concentrations of 210Po and 210Pb that are found in tobacco and its products, cigarette smoking highly increases the internal intake of both radionuclides and their concentrations in the lung tissues. That might contribute significantly to an increase in the internal radiation dose and in the number of instances of lung cancer observed among smokers. Samples of most frequently smoked fine and popular brands of cigarettes were collected from those available on the Egyptian market. 210Po activity concentrations were measured by alpha spectrometry, using surface barrier detectors, following the radiochemical separation of polonium. Samples of fresh tobacco, wrapping paper, fresh filters, ash and post-smoking filters were spiked with 208Po for chemical recovery calculation. The samples were dissolved using mineral acids (HNO3, HCl and HF). Polonium was spontaneously plated-out on stainless steel disks from diluted HCl solution. The 210Po activity concentration in smoke was estimated on the basis of its activity in fresh tobacco and wrapping paper, fresh filter, ash and post-smoking filters. The percentages of 210Po activity concentrations that were recovered from the cigarette tobacco to ash, post-smoking filters, and smokes were assessed. The results of this work indicate that the average (range) activity concentration of 210Po in cigarette tobacco was 16.6 (9.7-22.5) mBq/cigarette. The average percentages of 210Po content in fresh tobacco plus wrapping paper that were recovered by post-smoking filters, ash and smoke were 4.6, 20.7 and 74.7, respectively. Cigarette smokers, who are smoking one pack (20 cigarettes) per day, are inhaling on average 123 mBq/d of 210Po and 210Pb each. The annual effective doses were calculated on the basis of 210Po and 210Pb intake with the cigarette smoke. The mean values of the annual effective dose for smokers (one pack per day) were estimated to be 193 and 251 μSv from 210Po and 210Pb, respectively. © 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Author Keywords
Cigarettes smoking;  Egypt;  Lead-210;  Polonium-210;  Radiation dose;  Tobacco

Index Keywords
Radioisotopes, Stainless steel, Tobacco, Tumors; Lung tissues; Polonium; lead 210, polonium, radioisotope; polonium isotope; article, cigarette smoking, Egypt, filter, lung cancer, lung parenchyma, mathematical computing, paper, radiation dose, radioactivity, radiochemistry, spectrometry, tobacco; Egypt, Filtration, Humans, Lung, Polonium, Radiometry, Smoking, Tobacco; Fraxinus, Nicotiana tabacum

Chemicals/CAS
lead 210, 14255-04-0; polonium, 13981-52-7, 7440-08-6; Polonium, 7440-08-6

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Correspondence Address
Khater A.E.M.; Natl. Ctr. Nucl. Safety/Radiat. C.; Atomic Energy Authority; P.O. Box 7551 Nasr City, Cairo 11762, Egypt; email: khater_ashraf@yahoo.com


ISSN: 0265931X
CODEN: JERAE
DOI: 10.1016/S0265-931X(03)00118-8
Language of Original Document: English
Abbreviated Source Title: J. Environ. Radioact.
Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus


Khater, A.E.M.
Radiological aspects of some Egyptian thermo-mineral springs
(2003) Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 5 (3), pp. 414-418. Cited 1 time.

Abstracts & References

Natl. Ctr. Nucl. Safety/Radiat. C., Atomic Energy Authority, P.O. Box 7551, Nasr City, Cairo 11762, Egypt

Abstract
In Egypt, nineteen water springs with temperatures exceeding 35°C which can be considered thermal waters, were reported. The radiological aspects of thermal water in three northern regions of Egypt (Gulf of Suez, Cairo, and Bahariya Oasis) were investigated. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides of 226Ra, 40K, total uranium and 210Pb (210Po) in water samples were determined using gamma spectrometry, laser fluorimetry and alpha spectrometry after chemical separation, respectively. The highest concentrations are detected in two locations, namely Sudr and Hammam Faroun springs, which are the hottest waters in Egypt (89 and 72°C respectively). It seems that the presence of 226Ra is correlated to the water mineralization and the depth and the temperature of the reservoir's base. Also, these results seem evidence of uranium accumulation at depth in the mother bedrock and/or uranium immobilization due to uranium reduction to the immobile 4+-oxidation State in the reservoir base. The average activity concentrations of 40K are dependent on the water's origin, i.e. meteoric water mixed with sea water (Gulf of Suez springs) and meteoric water (Bahariya Oasis wells). There is no prescribed dose limit for short term and temporary exposure to thermal water. Workers at the thermal springs should be regularly monitored because of their continuous exposure to enhanced radiation levels over a long period of time. The hydrochemical characteristics, environmental isotopes aspects and water origin are briefly discussed based on published data.

Index Keywords
base, hot water, isotope, lead, mineral, potassium, radioisotope, sea water, uranium, water; article, chemical structure, concentration (parameters), correlation analysis, Egypt, environment, exposure, fluorometry, gamma spectrometry, high temperature, meteorology, mineralization, oxidation, priority journal, radiology, reservoir, separation technique, spring, thermodynamics, water sampling; Egypt, Environmental Monitoring, Geology, Humans, Occupational Exposure, Radioisotopes, Water, Water Supply

Chemicals/CAS
lead, 7439-92-1; potassium, 7440-09-7; uranium, 7440-61-1; water, 7732-18-5; Radioisotopes; Water, 7732-18-5

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Correspondence Address
Khater A.E.M.; Natl. Ctr. Nucl. Safety/Radiat. C.; Atomic Energy Authority; P.O. Box 7551 Nasr City, Cairo 11762, Egypt; email: kahetr_Ashraf@yahoo.com


ISSN: 14640325
CODEN: JEMOF
DOI: 10.1039/b301046e
Language of Original Document: English
Abbreviated Source Title: J. Environ. Monit.
Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus


Khater, A.E.M.a , Higgy, R.H.a , Pimpl, M.b
Radiological impacts of natural radioactivity in Abu-Tartor phosphate deposits, Egypt
(2001) Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 55 (3), pp. 255-267. Cited 11 times.

Abstracts & References

a Natl. Ctr. Nucl. Safety Radiat. C., P.O. Box 7551, Nasr City 11762, Cairo, Egypt
b Central Safety Department, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021, Karlsruhe, Germany

Abstract
Phosphate and environmental samples were collected from Abu Tartor phosphate mine and the surrounding region. The activity concentration of 226Ra (238U) series, 232Th series and 40K were measured using a gamma-ray spectrometer. The activities of uranium isotopes (238U, 235U and 234U) and 210Pb were measured using an alpha spectrometer and a low-background proportional gas counting system, respectively, after radiochemical separation. The results are discussed and compared with the levels in phosphate rocks from different countries. It seems that the Abu Tartor phosphate deposit has the lowest radioactivity level of exploited phosphate of sedimentary origin. 226Ra/238U, 210Pb/226Ra, 234U/238U and 226Ra/228Ra activity ratios were calculated and are discussed. The radioactivity levels in the surrounding region and the calculated exposure dose (nGy/h) will be considered as a pre-operational baseline to estimate the possible radiological impacts due to mining, processing and future phosphate industrial activities. To minimize these impacts, the processing wastes should be recycled to the greatest possible extent. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.

Author Keywords
Abu Tartor;  Dose assessment;  Phosphate mining and processing;  Phosphate rocks;  Radioactivity

Index Keywords
Gamma ray spectrometers, Isotopes, Phosphate mines, Phosphates, Separation, Uranium, Wastes; Gas counting systems; Radioactivation analysis; isotope, lead 210, phosphate, potassium 40, radium 226, radium 228, thorium 232, unclassified drug, uranium, uranium 234, uranium 235, uranium 238; alpha spectrometer, article, concentration response, Egypt, gamma spectrometry, geographic distribution, mining, natural radioactivity, radiation measurement, radiation processing, radiochemistry, rock, sampling, spectrometer; Apatites, Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation, Egypt, Mining, Occupational Exposure, Spectrometry, Gamma

Chemicals/CAS
Apatites

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Correspondence Address
Khater A.E.M.; Natl. Ctr. Nuclear Safety/Rad. Ctrl.; P.O. Box 7551 Nasr City 11762, Cairo, Egypt; email: khater_ashraf@yahoo.com


ISSN: 0265931X
CODEN: JERAE
DOI: 10.1016/S0265-931X(00)00193-4
Language of Original Document: English
Abbreviated Source Title: J. Environ. Radioact.
Document Type: Article
Source: Scopus


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