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The Final Exams: Questions & Answers for :

English 424(Final Exam)

English 427(Final Exam)

English 320 ( Final Exam)

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English 424(Final Exam)                                            Name:

 

I.                   Mark the following statements as True or False :

 

  1. A structurally ambiguous sentence has only one underlying interpretation represented in the deep structure.
  2. The " all and only" criterion in generative grammar means all the grammatical sentences and only the grammatical sentences.
  3. Recursion in generative grammar refers to the capacity to be applied once in generating a structure.
  4. By generativity we mean that by applying a set of explicit rules we can generate a limited number of sentences.
  5. Transformational rules change or move constituents in the structures derived from the phrase structure rules.
  6. Deep structure is an abstract level of structural organization in which all the elements determining structural interpretation are represented.
  7. A non-defining relative clause is very essential to our understanding of the sentence.
  8. Generative grammar must be capable of showing how a single underlying abstract representation can become different surface structures.
  9. The surface structure refers to the meaning while the deep structure is concerned with the form of sentences.
  10. According to generative grammar some superficially different sentences can be closely related while some superficially similar sentences can be different.
  11. Ambiguity results when one meaning has two or more forms.
  12. Paraphrase results from one form having two meanings.
  13. To understand a sentence according to transformational grammar we must know its lexical meaning as well as its structural meaning.

 

II.                Choose the correct answer :

  1. If Ali left earlier, he ----- in time for his test.

a. would arrive          b. will arrive            c. arrives

2. Sami advised me ------ the course.

a. don't take               b. not to take            c. not take

3. Layla asked me ------- her watch.

a. where had I found  b. had I found          c. where I had found

4. Had I had enough money I ----- you.

a. would have help     b. am going to help   c. would have helped

5. " Where is your car?" -  It is ------.

a. been fixed               b. being fixed             c. being fix

6. We will leave as soon as he ------

a. comes                      b. will come               c. came

7. The student ------ father is a dentist invited us.

a. whom                      b. whose                     c. which

8. I --------- a shower when you called me up.

a. was taken                b. was taking              c. am taking

9. I ------ my work by 9:00 p.m. tonight.

a. will be finished       b. will have finish       c. will have finished

10." Here is your watch"." Where ------------?"

a. did you found it      b.  were you found it   c. was it found

 

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English 427(Final Exam)                                                     Name:

 

I.                   Briefly explain FOUR of the following, with an example if needed:

 

  1. Error analysis/ contrastive analysis
  2. Integrative /instrumental motivation
  3. Descriptive / generative grammar
  4. Acquisition / learning ( a language)
  5. Positive / negative transfer
  6. Subjective/objective assessment

 

 

II.                State FOUR learning strategies that typify good language learners, with an example if needed.

 

III.             You have been introduced to various factors accounting for differences among learners in L2 learning. Mention FOUR factors and explain TWO of them, with an example if needed.

 

IV.             Match the following items or terms with their definitions or explanation :

 

( 1 )reflective learners –( 2 ) language acquisition –( 3 )traditional grammar –(4 )descriptive grammar ( 5 )linguistics –( 6 ) learning strategies –( 7 ) language variation –( 8 ) field independent learners –( 9 )  impulsive learners –( 10 )field dependent learners –( 11) dialect (12) language planning –(13) pragmatics-(14)language attitudes –(15)behaviorist approach –(16) innateness hypothesis –(17)discourse analysis( 18) psycholinguistics

 

------ steps taken by learners to facilitate the acquisition, storage, retrieval, or use of information.

------ the scientific study of language.

------ prescribes rules of correct or preferred usage.

------- describes the relationship between the use of linguistic forms and factors such as geography ,social class, ethnic group ,sex,age etc.

-------- the process of implementing major decisions regarding which languages should be used on a societal scale.

-------- children learn language through imitation and positive/negative reinforcement.

-------- tend to perceive elements independently of a context and focus on details and they are more analytical.

------- tend to make a slower, more calculated decisions, and are more cautious in learning L2

------- the ability to acquire language is a biological capacity children are born with.

------- tend to make a quick guess at an answer to a problem and are more willing to take risks in learning L2.

------- examines the way in which sentences relate in larger linguistic units, such as conversational exchanges or written texts.

-------- are more inclined to see the whole picture or situation and focus on general meaning, and they are more relational.

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Department of English                                                                    Name: …………..

English 320 ( Final Exam )

 

I.                   Mark the following statements as True or False :

 

  1. Animal communication generally lacks the property of displacement.
  2. Phonology is concerned with the description of the systems and patterns of speech sounds in a language.
  3. When two words are identical in form, they are described as minimal pairs.
  4. When two phonemes occur in sequence and some aspect of one phoneme is taken or copied by the other the process is known as assimilation.
  5. One property of generative grammar is that it will generate a limited number of well-formed structures using unlimited number of transformational rules.
  6. When two or more different (written) forms have the same pronunciation they are described as homonymy.
  7. The property of duality in language allows human language users to talk about things and events which are far remote in time and place.
  8. The capacity to be applied once to generate a structure is called recursion.
  9. Morphemes which indicate aspects of the grammatical function of a word are called inflectional morphemes.
  10. Cultural transmission refers to the process whereby language is passed on from one generation to the next generation.

 

II.                State FOUR processes of word-formation in English and explain them.

 

III.             Match each of the following terms with its definition or explanation:

 

Homonymy – syntax – semantics – prescriptive approach – morphology  - dentals  - articulatory phonetics – labiodentals – acoustic phonetics – voiceless sounds – homophony – voiced sounds – descriptive approach – forensic phonetics – hyponymy –pragmatics – synonymy – bilabials .

 

  1. The study of how speech sounds are made.
  2. Sounds formed using the upper teeth and the lower lip.
  3. The study of forms in language.
  4. Deals with the analysis of recorded utterances and speaker identification.
  5. The study of intended speaker meaning ( or invisible meaning ).
  6. Sounds produced when the vocal cords are drawn together and the air pushes them apart as it passes through.
  7. Describes the regular structures of the language as it should be used.
  8. The study of the meaning of words, phrases, and sentences.
  9. When one form ( written and spoken ) has two or more unrelated meanings.
  10. When the meaning of one form is included in the meaning of another.

Answers to final exams questions:   ( English 320: )

 

I.                   True 2. True 3. False 4. True 5. False 6. False 7. False 8. False 9. True  

10. True .

 

II.                FOUR processes of word-formation :

 

  1. Coinage: i.e. the invention of totally new terms. e. g. Xerox , zipper , aspirin.
  2. Blending : i.e. combining two separate forms to produce a single new term.e.g. brunch ( breakfast/lunch ), motel ( motor/hotel).
  3. Conversion: i.e. changing the function of a word .e.g. when a noun is used as a verb( without any reduction)e.g. paper, can , butter.
  4. Borrowing: i.e. the taking over of words from other languages.e.g. alcohol from Arabic, boss from Dutch.

 

III.             1. articulatory phontics 2. labiodentals 3. morphology 4. forensic phonetics

5. pragmatics 6. voiced sounds 7. prescriptive approach 8. semantics  9.homonymy  10. hyponymy

 

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