J. aric. Engng Res. 60, 1-5
Significance of Energy Losses Due to Emitter Connections in Trickle Irrigation Lines
Ahmed I. Al-Amoud
(Received 17 February 1993; accepted in revised form 12 April 1994).
A study has been made of the effect of on-line emitters on the energy losses in trickle irrigation laterals. The study involved eight types of emitter with various barb areas installed into five commonly used polyethylene pipes of different diameters. Results of the investigation indicate that there are significant energy losses due to the emitter connections. The values of these losses are a function of the area of the emitter barb protrusion and the lateral pipe diameter. An increase in the energy loss of more than 32% compared with plain pipe was observed for laterals of 13mm diameter. A simple procedure is suggested to incorporate the emitter barb losses in the design of trickle irrigation laterals.