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Guidelines_English_Final

Revision of the light waves

 

Lasers and their applications

 

1. Introduction - Laser Radiation and its properties.

1.1 Electromagnetic radiation - in vacuum and in matter.

1.2 Properties of laser radiation - Monochromaticity, Directionality, Coherence.

2. Laser Mechanism.

2.1 Bohr model of an atom.

2.2 Photons and Energy levels diagrams.

2.3 Absorption of electromagnetic radiation.

2.4 Spontaneous emission of electromagnetic radiation.

2.5 Thermodynamic equilibrium.

2.6 Population inversion.

2.7 Stimulated emission.

2.8 Rate equations.

2.9 Stimulated transitions.

2.10 Amplification.

2.11 3 level laser.

2.12 4 level laser.

3. Laser system.

3.1 Active medium.

3.2 Excitation mechanism.

3.3 Feedback mechanism.

3.4 Output coupler.

3.5 Interactive Demonstration.

4. Optical cavity and oscillation modes.

4.1 Standing waves.

4.2 Longitudinal modes in a laser.

4.3 Transverse modes in a laser.

4.4 Optical Cavity.

5. Amplification in a laser - Laser Gain.

5.1 Fluorescence line shape.

5.2 Amplification in a closed loop path between the mirrors of the optical cavity.

5.3 "Hole burning" in the amplification curve.

6. Laser types and their characteristics.

 Laser types introduction

6.1 Gas lasers:

Atom Gas:

6.1.1 Helium-Neon Laser (He-Ne).

6.1.2 Metal Vapor Laser (Copper, Gold).

6.1.3 Helium Cadmium Laser (He-Cd).

Ion Gas:

6.1.4 Argon Ion Laser (Ar+).

6.1.5 Krypton Laser (Kr+).

Molecular Gas:

6.1.6 Carbon Dioxide Laser (CO2).

6.1.7 Nitrogen Laser (N2).

6.1.8 Excimer Laser.

6.1.9 Chemical Laser.

6.1.10 Far Infra-Red Laser (FIR).

6.2 Solid State lasers:

6.2.1 Ruby Laser.

6.2.2 Neodimium YAG and Nd Glass Laser.

6.2.3 Alexandrite Laser.

6.2.4 Color Center Laser.

6.2.5 Titanium Sapphire Laser.

6.3 Diode Laser (Semiconductor Laser, Injection Laser).

6.4 Dye Laser (Liquid).

6.5 Special Lasers:

6.5.1 Free Electron Laser (FEL).

6.5.2 X Ray Laser.

7. Characteristics of Laser Radiation.

7.0 Radiometry and measurement of Electromagnetic Radiation.

7.1 Spatial Energy Distribution at the Laser Output.

7.2 Laser Beam Divergence and Focusing Capability.

7.3 Pulsed Radiation.

7.4 Special Mechanisms for creating Pulses ("Q" switch and Mode Lock).

7.5 Polarization of Electromagnetic Radiation.

8. Control of the Characteristics of Laser Radiation.

8.1 Control of spatial properties of the beam.

8.2 Control of the wavelength.

8.3 Choosing a specific longitudinal mode with etalon.

9. Laser Applications.

9.1 Industrial applications.

9.1.1 Accurate measurements (Distance, Movement, Interferometry).

9.1.2 Straight line marking, or plan of reference.

 

 
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