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Course PDS 341 Lectures

Lecture  “Dental Caries”

Proximal lesions in primary molars develop

a. slightly occlusal to contact areas
b. slightly gingival to contact areas  *
c. at the contact area
d. hardly develop on these surfaces

What is the source of oral microbial flora in infants ?

a. Infants are born with micro-organisms
b. Infants acquire micro-organisms from air in environment
c.  Infants acquire micro-organisms from mother’s oral flora   *
d.  Infants acquire micro-organisms from dirty utensils

If an abscessed primary molar is left untreated in the mouth, hypoplasia of the permanent developing successor will occur; a condition known as:

a. Gorlin tooth
b. Pindborg tooth
c. Turner tooth *
d. Peg tooth

If primary molars have open contacts < 0.5 mm, caries is suspected to be

a. 20 X more than teeth with open contacts
b.   10 X  more than teeth with open contacts *
c.    5  X  more than teeth with open contacts
d.   2  X   more than teeth with open contacts

The cause of early childhood caries is

a.  stagnation of human milk on teeth during sleep
b.  stagnation of cow’s milk on teeth during sleep
c. stagnation of  human or cow’s milk on teeth any time of day  *

The rate of progression of dental caries in  enamel is:

a. Six months in primary teeth and 3-4 years in permanent teeth
b. One year in primary teeth and 2-3 years in  permanent teeth  *
c. Six months in primary teeth and 9 months in permanent teeth
d. One year in primary teeth and six months in permanent teeth

Lecture  “Prevention”

During teething, a child may experience

1. drooling of  saliva
2.  urge to bite
3. ear infection
4. skin eruptions

 a.  1,2,3     b.  2,3,4       c.  1,2,4 *     d.  1,3,4     

 The lethal dose of fluoride for a 3-year old child is

a. 200 mg
b. 300 mg
c. 400 mg
d. 500 mg *

It is recommended that parents should assist children with tooth brushing until the age of 7 years because

a. children should feel independent
b. children attain good manual dexterity by this age  *
c. children tend to swallow the toothpaste
d. children tend to injure their gums

Infants develop the rooting reflex at

a. birth   *
b. 7 months
c. 13-16 w.i.u.
d. 12 months


A balanced diet that helps in preventing dental caries

a. consists of three regular meals that contain all what a child would demand
b. contains foods from all four food groups    *
c. does not contain any high sugar-content foods
d. contains high sugar-content foods only in breakfast or lunch

What are the requirements of a good pacifier ?

1. Sturdy, one piece, non-toxic material
2. Easily grasped handles
3. Inseparable nipples and mouth guard
4. Mouth guard should be of adequate diameter and with two ventilating holes
5. Has a warning label against neck tying
6. Sweeteners should never be added to it

What are the dental risk factors ?

1. High risk pregnancy or complicated delivery
2. Hereditary defects or developmental disabilities
3. Absence of optimal fluoride therapy
4. Feeding disorders (prolonged feeding)
5. Family history of severe-moderate dental disease
6. High levels of salivary streptococcus mutans
7. Social, cultural, ethnic and environmental factors
8. Low parental interest in prevention

Course PDS 441

Lecture “Antimicrobials”

Who discovered penicillins?

a. Alexander Bell
b. Alexander Fleming  *
c. Alexander the Great
d. Alexander Pasteur

Which of the following conditions require antibiotic prophylaxis against bacterial endocarditis?

1. Complex cyanotic congenital heart disease.
2. Cardiac pacemakers
3. Previous coronary artery bypass graft surgery
4. Previous bacterial endocarditis 

 a. 1, 2
 b. 2, 3
 c. 3, 4
 d. 1, 4   *

Which of the following dental procedures require prophylactic antibiotics in patients  susceptible to bacterial endocarditis?

1. Initial placement of orthodontic bands
2. Intra-ligamentary local anesthesia
3. Taking oral impressions
4. Dental prophylaxis

 a. 1, 2, 3
 b. 1, 2, 4   *
 c. 2, 3, 4
 d. 1, 3, 4

When are therapeutic antibiotics indicated in children?

a. Dental abscess with fistulous tract
b. Dental abscess without fistulous tract
c. Dental infection invaded fascial spaces   *
d. After extractions

What is your first drug of choice for the treatment of candida  albicans?                 

a. Acyclovir
b. Clindamycin
c. Ketoconazole
d. Nystatin     *

Lecture “ Sedation”

Some of the objectives of conscious sedation are
1. patient’s mood should be altered
2. patient’s cooperation should be improved
3. patient’s pain threshold should be reduced
4. patient’s reflexes are intact

 a.  1,2,3       b.  2,3,4      c.  1,3,4      d. 1,2,4  *

When evaluating the sedated patient’s vital signs, one should compare them with

a. international norms
b. national norms
c. patient’s vital signs of previous appointment
d. patient’s pre-sedation vital signs  *

When calculating the sedation dose for a child, one should put in consideration

1. the hours that the child spent sleeping
2. the contents of the child’s stomach
3. the age of the child
4. the weight of the child

 a.  2,3,4 *       b.  1,2,3          c.  1,3,4           d. 1,2,4

The oral route of administration of conscious sedation is the most common because :
1. it is the easiest, by cup
2. drugs could be titrated
3. drugs could be combined with different kinds together
4. drug absorption depends on stomach content

a.   1,2                 b.  1,3 *              c.   2,3           d.  3,4

With any sedation case, emergency facilities should be available like oxygen equipment in the form of

a. 90% positive pressure oxygen at 15 litres/ minute  *
b. 60% oxygen at 6 litres/ minute
c. 40% oxygen at 8 litres/ minute
d. 100% oxygen at 8 litres/ minute

Lecture “Infectious Diseases”

Some of the clinical manifestations of scarlet fever are:

1. strawberry tongue
2. skin rash in folds
3. eye cataract
4. enlarged gingiva

 a.  1,2,3            b.  1,2,4           c.  1,2   *        d.  1,4

The patient has a history of insect bite, on clinical examination, you found vesicles on the child’s face. What would your diagnosis be?

a. herpetic gingivostomatitis
b. chicken pox
c. hand, foot & mouth disease
d. impetigo  *

The causative agent of Chickenpox is

a. Coxackie A virus
b. Beta hemolytic streptococci
c. Varicella Zoster virus       *
d.  Bartonella Henselae bacilli

Hepatitis A is transmitted by

a. parentral route
b. percutaneous route
c. fecal-oral route     *
d. vertical transmission

It is always important to check the patient’s throat  during a dental examination to identify diseases like

1. Herpetic Gingivostomatitis
2. Herpangina
3. Hand, foot, mouth disease
4. Scarlet fever

 a. 1, 2,3       b. 2,3,4 *      c. 1,3,4       d. 1,2,4

Lecture  “Occlusion”

Spacings in the primary dentition are:

a. primate spaces and interdental spaces *
b. primate spaces and leeway spaces
c. interdental spaces and leeway spaces
d. primate spaces, interdental spaces and leeway spaces

Early mesial shift of first permanent molars occurs by utlilzing:

a. primate spaces  *
b. leeway spaces
c. interdental spacing between primary incisors
d. only in closed dentitions

Which of the following describes a primary molar relationship that may lead to normal permanent molar occlusion?

1. Mesial step terminal plane
2. Distal step terminal plane
3. Flush terminal plane
4. Exaggerated mesial step terminal plane

 a. 1, 2
 b. 1, 3  *
 c. 2, 3
 d. 3, 4

A six year old patient is presented to you with ectopic eruption of mandibular lateral incisors is best managed by:

a. serial extraction
b. disking of mesial surfaces of  primary canines
c. wait until age 8 and the tongue, lips and alveolar growth  will enhance normal position of teeth   *
d. extraction of mandibular primary incisors

The sequence of eruption of the permanent teeth in the lower arch is:
a. 1,2,3,4,5,6,7
b. 1,2,4,5,3,6,7
c. 6,1,2,3,4,5,7   *
d. 6,1,2,4,3,5,7

The primate spaces are located:

a. mesial to maxillary canine and distal to mandibular canine  *
b. distal to maxillary canine and mesial to mandibular canine
c. mesial to maxillary canine and mesial to mandibular canine
d. distal to maxillary canine and distal to mandibular canine

During growth, the dental arches change in dimensions. The maxillary dental arch width shows:

a. increase in intercanine width and decrease in intermolar width
b. decrease in intercanine width and increase in intermolar width
c. increase in both intercanine and intermolar widths  *
d.  decrease in both intercanine and intermolar widths

A 7-year old patient is presented to you in the clinic, upon examination, you found mandibular permanent lateral incisors are erupting lingual to primary lateral incisors. Mother is concerned about the situation. How will you manage the case ?

a. Extract the primary lateral incisors.
b. Analyze the spaces then extract the primary lateral incisors if space is deficient.
c. Never extract the primary lateral incisors, they will exfoliate normally.
d. Wait till patient is 8 years and 4 months then decide to extract the primary lateral incisors. *

Normal mandibular incisor crowding at the age of 8-9 years is compensated by:

a. intercanine arch width increase
b. labial positioning of labial incisors
c. distal shift of primary canines into primate spaces
d. all of the above  *
e. none of the above

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