PHC 461: INSTRUMENTAL ANALYSIS
(2 + 1)
Prerequisite: PHC 262
The course concerns with the study of the principles and theoretical bases of electrochemical analysis,
spectrophotometric analysis as well as separation methods with regard to instrumentation, and application are also included.
I. Ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometry
‑Beer's Law, Lambert's Law, definitions, 2
derivation, and presentation of spectra.
‑Effect and detection of impurities. 1
‑Correction of a constant and linear interferences. 1
Morton & Stubb's method.
‑The compensation method & the ΔA method. 1
‑Job's method for complexation & photometric titrations. 1
‑Acid‑dye technique and dissociation constant determination. 1
‑Derivative curves of absorption spectra. 1
II. Optical rotatory dispersion & circular dichroism 2
(ORD & CD).
III. High performance liquid chromatography
‑Instrumentation (choice of detector for different 1
groups of drugs).
‑Choice of optimum systems for selected groups 2
of drugs in various dosage forms.
‑Detection of degradation products and excipients 2
‑Separation and quantification of mixtures in various 2
‑Stability‑indicating methods of assay. 1
VI. Electrochemical analysis
Potentiometric analysis 4
‑Sign conventions for electrode processes, application
of e.m.f. measurements for determination of
Keq, Ksp, Ka and Kb.
‑Non‑aqueous potentiometric titrations, different
solvents and electrodes used.
‑Principles of polarography: features
of polarograph‑instrumentation‑DME and
‑Polarographic maxima ‑ maxima suppressors ‑
deaeration ‑ diffusion current and Ilkovic equation.
‑Evaluation methods: calibration curve,
standard addition and internal standard methods.
‑Amperometric and biamperometric titrations. 2