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تحميل الدليل التدريبي

أسئلة شائعة


(2 + 1)



Prereqisite:  PHC 261


Course Description


The course furnishes a broad basis for instrumental analysis which comprises, colorimetry, UV‑spectrophotometry, fluorometry, IR‑spectrometry, flame photometry, atomic absorption, spectrophotometry, polarimetry, refractometry, conductiometry and potentiometry. Furthermore, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), mass‑spectrometry and high‑performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) will be briefly introduced.


Theoretical                                                                                                                                    Lectures


Ultra‑violet and visible spectrophotometry                                                                                  5

‑Interaction of light with atoms and  molecules:

 (Nature of light, various regions of electromagnetic spectrum,

 concept of quantization of energy, different types of

 energy of molecules).

‑U.V. ‑ visible spectra of compounds: (Chromophores,

  auxochromes, factors affecting spectra).

‑Lambert ‑ Beer's Law:

 (Application to single component and two component mixtures).


 (U.V. ‑ visible spectrophotometers ‑ components and function of each).

‑Colorimetric reactions:

(Classes of reactions, conditions and chromogens).


Fluorometry                                                                                                                                         2

‑Theoretical background:

 (Exchange‑energy processes induced, spectra, structural and

 environmental factors).

‑Fluorescence intensity and concentration.


 (Features of filter fluorimeters and fluorescence spectrophotometers).

‑Quantitative application.


Infra‑red spectroscopy                                                                                                                       4

‑Theoretical background:

 (Vibrational frequency, bond constant and reduced mass.

 Fundamental,  combination and overtone bands. Degrees

 of freedom. Modes of vibaration).

‑Sample handling and instrumentation:

 (Different sample forms, components of IR‑spectrophotometers,

 energy sources and detectors).


‑Qualitative analysis:  (Identification of compounds).

‑Quantitative application:  (Base‑line technique).


Introduction to NMR spectroscopy                                                                                                  3



‑Chemical shift.

‑Spin‑spin coupling and decoupling.



Introduction to MS spectroscopy                                                                                                      2


‑Mass/charge ratio, mass spectrum.

‑Determination of molecular formula.



Flame photometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy                                                               3

‑Theoretical background:

 (Thermal excitation and emission, metal ions sensitive to flame

  emission and absorption methods ‑ spectral and chemical

  interferences and their minimization).


 (Features of filter photometers and monochromator photometers).


 Determination of alkali metal ions and divalent metal

  ions of pharmaceutical interest.


Polarimetry and refractometry                                                                                                        2



‑Measurement of angle of rotation.

‑Measurement of refractive index.

‑Application to pharmaceutical compounds.


Potentiometry and conductometry                                                                                                   4



‑pH measurements.

‑Potentiometric titrations curves.

‑Conductance and conductivity.

‑Titration curves.

‑Application to pharmaceutical analysis.

‑Application to pharmaceutical analysis.

‑Application of HPLC to pharmaceutical analysis.                                                                         1


Examination.                                                                                                                                         2

  Total   28


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