KING SAUD UNIVERSIty
COLLEGE OF MEDICINE
COURSE 113 ANA (Dental- First year)
Course Title: Human Anatomy and Histology
Learning Format (Instructional Hours):
Lectures: 2 hours per week
Tutorial and Practical: 2x2 per week/students group
This course aims at enhancing study of the basic knowledge of Macroscopic Anatomy (Morphology), General embryology and Development of the face, neck and skull; and Microscopic Anatomy (Histology) for students of college of Dentist.
At the end of this course the students should be able to:
1. Describe the cell structure and the functions of its components.
2. Describe the structure of the basic body tissues.
3. Describe the macroscopic and microscopic structure of the organ system of the human body.
4. Describe anatomical terms, and human biology.
5. Describe the detailed anatomy of the head and neck.
6. Describe the Human general embryology and development of the face, mouth, palate, neck and skull.
1. Formal lectures.
2. Tutorial and practical sessions.
(1). The Developing Human.
By MOOR and PERSAUD 7th Edition Saunders.
(2). Clinical Anatomy for Medical Students.
By RICHARD S. SNELL 7th Edition Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
(3). Color atlas of Histology.
By, Leslie P. Gartner & James L. Hiatt. Last ed.
(4).Essential of Human Anatomy & Physiology.
By, Elaine N. Marieb Seventh Edition
(I) Morphology (Gross Anatomy):
- Introduction to Anatomy:
Anatomical terms, Terms of position and movements and body cavities.
2. Skeletal system:
Classifications and functions of bones:
Axial skeleton: Main bones of the cranium and face; Vertebral column; intervertebral discs, curvatures of the vertebral column, general features of the vertebra, thoracic cage, sternum and classifications of ribs.
Appendicular skeleton, bones of the shoulder girdle (clavicle and scapula).
Main and general features of the bones of the upper and lower limbs.
Classifications of joints; Features of each type.
Morphological and functional classifications of synovial joints.
Classification of muscles in brief.
Introduction about skeletal muscles (origin, insertion tendon, and apneurosis). Types of body movements, important muscles of face, neck thorax, abdomen, and limbs.
5. Nervous system:
Divisions of nervous system into central and peripheral nervous system, Classifications of neurons in brief.
Different parts of the brain (lobes of the cerebrum and cerebellum,
Diencephalon, Brain stem, Spinal cord -Location extent, internal
structure of segments in brief, cervical and lumber enlargements, cauda equine.
Meninges and C.S.F. in brief and lumber puncture.
Spinal and cranial nerves in brief.
Autonomic nervous system in brief.
6. Circulatory system:
Heart, location, shape, chambers, apex, and base. Pericardium, brief account of systemic and pulmonary circulations. Portal circulation. Valves of the heart. Major arteries and veins of the body. Arteries of the brain. Arterial pressure points, carotid, brachial, femoral and popliteal arteries.
7. Lymphatic System: Lymphatic groups, lymph nodes, lymph glands, and lymph vessels.
8. Respiratory system:
Nose parts, structure and function. Para nasal sinuses and their functions. Pharynx-three parts, adenoids, palatine tonsils. Larynx-main cartilages, vocal cords, functions. Trachea and bronchi, pleura and lungs in brief.
9. Digestive system:
Structure and functions of the digestive system, in brief. Oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines.
Accessory digestive organs- liver gall bladder pancreas and salivary glands.
10. Urinary system:
Kidneys- location size shape, capsule, structure within the hilum. Parts of the ureter. Urinary bladder, Size, location, shape, trigone, internal and external sphincters. Urethra, differences between male and female urethra.
11. Male reproductive system:
Testis -location, scrotal sac, tunica albuginea, somniferous tubules, rete testis, efferent ductules, functions of the testis. Duct system- epididymis.
Ejaculatory ducts and urethra.
Accessory glands- prostate, seminal vesicles and bulbo urethral glands.
12. Female reproductive system:
Ovaries- size shape and location, hormones produced by the ovaries.
Duct system; Fallopian tubes, uterus, parts and layers of the uterus and vagina.
13. Endocrine glands:
Pituitary, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Suprarenal, and Gonads.
14. Head and Neck:
-Skeleton of the head and neck:
Skull, mandible, hyoid bone, and cervical vertebrae.
Scalp: layers, muscles, vessels, and innervations of the scalp.
Face: Muscles, vessels, and innervations of face.
Posterior triangle of the neck.
Anterior triangle of the neck.
Sub occipital triangle.
Meninges, Dural venous sinuses, Emissary veins, and pituitary gland.
Eye lids, lacrimal apparatus.
Orbit: extra ocular muscles, sensory, and motor nerves, ophthalmic vessels.
Temporal and infratemporal regions: muscles of mastication, mandibular and maxillary nerves, and maxillary artery.
Submandibular region: Digastric muscle, submandibular salivary gland, and hyoglossus muscle.
Deep structures infront of the neck:
Thyroid, and parathyroid glands, trachea, esophagus.
Major vessels of the head and neck: Subclavian, common carotid, internal carotid, external carotid arteries, and internal jugular vein.
- Cranial nerves.
- Cervical sympathetic chain.
- Scalene muscles.
- Prevertebral muscles.
- Oral cavity.
- Nasal cavity and Paranasal sinuses.
- Lymphatic drainage of the head and neck.
- Joints of the head and neck.
- X-ray of the head and neck.
· Nucleus: nuclear envelope, nucleoli, chromatin, nuclear matrix.
· Cell division (Mitosis).
· Plasma membrane: specializations of the plasma membrane.
· Cytoplasm: cytoplasmic organelles.
3. Epithelial tissue:
· Special characteristics of the epithelium.
· Classification of the epithelium
o Simple epithelium.
- Stratified Epithelium.
- Glandular Epithelium.
· Epithelial membranes.
· Glandular epithelium.
· Intercellular Junctions.
4. Connective tissue (C.T.):
o Common characteristics.
1- C.T. Proper.
5. Muscle tissue:
o Types: 1- Skeletal Muscle.
§ 2- Cardiac Muscle.
§ 3- Smooth Muscle.
6. Nervous Tissue:
o Structure and function: Neurons and supporting cells.
o Structure of a peripheral nerve.
o Ganglia (Spinal, Autonomic)
o Nerve endings (Muscle spindle, Motor end plate)
7. Vascular system:
o Blood vessels:
Medium sized artery
Medium sized vein
8. Lymphatic system:
o Lymph nodes.
9. Respiratory system:
- Nasal cavity.
10. Digestive system:
- Oral cavity: Tongue, major salivary glands.
- Stomach: Fundus.
- Small intestine: Duodenum.
- Large intestine: Colon.
- Liver, Pancreas
11. Endocrine system:
o Pituitary gland, Thyroid gland, Parathyroid gland.
Introduction to embryology, male and female reproductive systems.
1. General embryology: Gametogenesis, Spermatogenesis, oogenesis, Ovarian cycle, and uterine cycle, fertilization, implantation, segmentation, morula, blastocyst, chorionic vesicle,.
2. Changes in the bilaminar germ disc (embryonic plate). Formation of the notochord- formation of the secondary embryonic mesoderm (intaembryonic mesoderm).Trilaminar germ disc.
Paraxial, intermediate, lateral plate mesoderm.
3. Early changes in the ectoderm and formation of the neural plate, tube, and crest.
4. Folding of the embryo.
5. Fetal membranes: Chorion, Chorionic villi, Placenta, Yolk sac, Amnion, Allantois, Connecting stalk and umbilical cord.
7. Special embryology: Formation and derivatives of the pharyngeal arches, clefts and pouches.
§ Development of face, mouth, palate and tongue.
§ Development of the skull bones.
· METHODS OF THE EVALUTION (COURSE 113 ANA):
o Students are assessed by written and practical examinations:
o Two continuous assessments, a midyear examination., and a final comprehensive examination.
o In addition students are assessed by 2 Quizzes (one foe each semester),
o One oral examination after the third CAE. And before the final examination.
o Practical examinations are two one in the midyear and the other in the final.
o Examination Schedule and distribution of the marks:
(1) First quiz: In the sixth week, (Wednesday), five marks.
· Nine questions (3 Histology +5 Anatomy).
- (2)First continuous assessment examination: Ten marks
- Comprehensive, in the midweek of the semester,
- Thirty questions (10histology +20 Anatomy).
· 30 best answer.
- The first Continuous assessment Examination (1st.CAE):
Contains all topic studied from the start of the academic year.
- (3)Midyear examination: (Second continuous assessment)
§ 20 marks (15 Written+5 Practical).
§ Comprehensive, in the end of the first semester.
§ Thirty questions (10 histology +20 Anatomy)
§ 30 best answer.
§ Practical examination: In Anatomy and Histology.
§ In the 2nd CAE: 1/3 of the questions are related to the
topics of the 1st CAE; while 2/3 from the topics
studied after the 1st CAE.
- 2-In the second semester:
- (1) First quiz: In the sixth week, (Wednesday), five marks.
· Nine questions (3 Histology +5 Anatomy).
- (2)Third continuous assessment examination: 10 marks
- Comprehensive, in the midweek of the semester, 10 marks.
- Thirty questions (10 histology. +20 Anatomy).
- 30 best answer.
- The 3rd Continuous assessment Examination (CAE):
Contains all topic studied from the start of the second semester
- (3)Final examination: 40 marks
- Comprehensive, in the end of the second semester.
- 40 marks (30 Written+10 Practical).
- Sixty questions (20 histology +40 Anatomy)
- 60 best answer.
- Practical examination In Anatomy and Histology.
- One third of questions are related to topics of the first semester; while the other 2/3 is from topics of the second semester.
- It is not allowed to attend any of the above mentioned exams with the mobile phone.
- Policy for Reset Exam for CAE or Quiz:
* The absent student should apply an appeal to the chairman of Anatomy Department for the missed examination within one week.
*Resit examination will be in the form of ESSAY WRITTEN EXAM for the absent student whose appeal was accepted by the Department of Anatomy.
*No reset exam will be held for the absent student whose appeal was refused by the Department of Anatomy.
*Recorded marks for the missed exam will be: ZERO
First year Course of Anatomy
( I ) Basic Information (According to the block)
Course Title: 101 skill-113 heart-112 thorax-114-kidney-115 skeletal
Contact clock hours for male students:
(a) Group A:
Lecture: 1 hour (Saturday, 1-2 pm.)
Practical: 2 hours (Saturday, 2-4 pm.)
(b) Group B:
Lecture: 1 hour (Wednesday, 9-10 am.)
Practical: 2 hours (Wednesday, 10- 12 am.)
Contact clock hours for female students:
Lecture: 1 hour (Saturday, 9-10 am.)
Practical: 2 hours (Saturday, 10-12 am.)
(II) Course objectives:
(A) General objectives:
The course is designed to:
(1) Provide the student with a basic knowledge of the structure of cells, tissues and organs of the body.
(2) Correlate the microscopic structure of individual tissue components and organs with their functions.
(B) Specific objectives:
At the end of the course, student should be able to:
(1) Describe and identify the components and organelles of the cell.
(2) Describe and identify the histological structure of the basic tissues of the body.
(3) Describe and identify the histological structure of the organs of the body.
(4) Correlate the structure and function of the cells, tissues and organs.
(III) Learning format:
(A) Lectures. (B) Practical sessions / Demonstrations
(A) Lectures: (i) General histology:
1- Histological processing.
2- Cell structure 3- Epithelial Tissue.
4- Connective Tissue Proper.
7- Muscle Tissue.
8- Nervous tissue.
9- Lymphoid Tissue.
(ii) Systemic Histology:
1- Circulatory system.
2- Respiratory System.
3- Digestive System:
- Oral cavity and salivary glands.
- Alimentary Tract.
- Liver, Gall bladder and Pancreas.
4- Urinary System.
5- Endocrine Glands.
6- Skin (Integument).
7- Male Reproductive System.
8- Female Reproductive System.
(B) Practical sessions of Histology course (Course 120):
(1) Demonstration of processing and staining of paraffin sections.
(2)Demonstration of electron micrographs of the following:
1- Cell nucleus:
Nucleolus, Heterochromatin, Euchromatin, Nuclear envelope,
Perinuclear cisterna, Nuclear pores.
2- Cell cytoplasm:
Cell membrane, Mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, Rough endoplasmic reticulum, Smooth endoplasmic reticulum,
Lysosomes, Centrioles, Cilia, Microvilli.
(3) Epithelial membranes:
1. Simple squamous epithelium (e.g. endothelium).
2. Simple cuboidal epithelium (e.g. Thyroid gland).
3. Simple columnar epithelium with goblet cells (e.g. small intestine).
4. Pseudo-stratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells (e.g. nasal septum).
5. Non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium (e.g. esophagus)
6. Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium (e.g. Skin).
7. Transitional epithelium (e.g. Urinary bladder).
(4) Epithelial glands:
1. Simple tubular gland (e.g. intestinal crypts of colon).
2. Simple branched tubular gland (e.g. fundic gastric glands).
3. Sebaceous gland (in skin).
4. Serous acini (e.g. Parotid salivary gland or Pancreas).
5. Mucous acini & mucoserous acini (e.g. Sublingual salivary gland).
(5) Connective tissue proper (C.T.):
1. Loose (areolar) C.T.
2. Dense fibrous C. T. (Regular type):e.g. Tendon.
3. " " " (Irregular type):e.g. Skin.
4. Elastic C.T. (e.g. Aorta)
5. Reticular C.T. (silver stain): e.g. Liver.
6. Adipose C.T.
7. Mucous C.T. (e.g. Umbilical cord).
1. Hyaline cartilage (e.g. Trachea).
2. Fibrocartilage (e.g. Intervertebral disc).
3. Elastic cartilage (e.g. Ear pinna).
1. Compact bone (Ground section).
2. Spongy (Cancellous) bone (Decalcified section).
(8) Muscle tissue:
1. Skeletal muscle ( L.S.):e.g. Tongue.
2. Skeletal muscle (T.S.).
3. Cardiac muscle.
4. Smooth muscle.
(9) Nervous tissue:
1. Peripheral nerve trunk.
2. Spinal ganglion (Dorsal root ganglion)
3. Sympathetic ganglion.
4. Motor end plate.
5. Muscle spindle.
6. Pacinian corpuscle.
(10) Lymphoid tissue:
1. Lymph node.
3. Palatine tonsil.
(11) Circulatory system:
2. Medium-sized artery.
3. Medium-sized vein.
(12) Respiratory system:
(13) Digestive system:
3. Parotid salivary gland.
4. Submandibular salivary gland.
5. Sublingual salivary gland.
7. Fundus of stomach.
8. Pylorus of stomach.
12. Vermiform appendix.
14. Gall bladder.
(14) Urinary system:
3. Urinary bladder.
(15) Endocrine glands:
1. Pituitary gland.
2. Thyroid gland.
3. Parathyroid gland.
4. Adrenal gland.
5. Islets of Langerhans.
1. Thick skin.
2. Thin skin.
(17) Male reproductive system:
3. Vas deferens.
(18) Female reproductive system.
2. Corpus luteum.
3. Fallopian (uterine) tube.
6. Inactive mammary gland (non-lactating).
7. Active mammary gland (lactating).
Students are assessed by written and practical examinations consisting of three continuous assessment examinations and one final comprehensive examination at the end of the year in addition to two Quizzes.
(A) Examinations' schedule and marks' distribution
(For academic year 1428-1429H ONLY):
(1) Quiz 1. (5 marks)
(2) First continuous assessment: mid semester. (15 marks)
(3) Second continuous assessment (Mid-year exam): (20 marks)
(1) Quiz 2. (5 marks)
(2) Third continuous assessment: mid semester (15 marks)
(3) Final exam (End of year exam): (40 marks)
(B) Examination Format:
All written examinations consist of M.C.Q. (One best answer)
(1) Continuous assessment examinations:
(i) Written exam: comprising 30 questions.
(ii) Practical exam: comprising slides for identification.
(2) Quizzes: written only.
(3) Examination Format for final exam:
(i) Written exam (75% of the marks): comprising 60 questions.
(ii) Practical exam (25% of the marks): comprising slides for
(C) Examinations' contents:
(1) First continuous assessment (CAT 1):
Comprehensive exam (i.e. includes all topics studied from the start
of the academic year).
(2) Second continuous assessment (CAT 2): comprehensive exam:
(i) Written examination:
30% of questions are from topics included in the first continuous assessment.
70% of questions are from topics given after the first
(ii) Practical examination: comprehensive exam.
(3) Third continuous assessment (CAT 3):
It includes topics studied from the beginning of the second
Semester up to the time of examination.
Each quiz includes topics given prior to the week preceding the
date of the quiz.
(5) Final examination:
It is a comprehensive examination including all topics studied
throughout the academic year.
30% of the questions are from topics studied during the first semester.
70% of the questions are from topics studied during the second semester.
The student is required to fulfill attendance requirements (75%)
before being admitted to the examination.
(D) Resit (second chance) final examination:
Written exam: 70 marks.
Practical exam: 30 marks.
(E) Resit examination for continuous assessment and quiz:
(1) The absent student should appeal to the chairman of
Anatomy department for permission to sit for a resit examination
within ONE WEEK of the date of the examination.
(2) Resit examination will be in the form of essay questions.
The following changes will be implemented as
from the academic year 1429-1430H concerning examinations schedule and marks distribution:
(1) Quiz 1: (5 marks).
(2) First continuous assessment: written only (10 marks).
(3) Second continuous assessment: comprehensive (30 marks):
Written examination: (20 marks).
Practical examination:(10 marks).
(1) Quiz 2: (5 marks).
(2) Third continuous assessment: written only (10 marks).
Final examination: (40 marks):
Written examination: (30 marks).
Practical examination: (10 marks).
(V) Suggested reference textbooks for the course 120 Anat. (Histology):
(1) For theoretical:
Color Text Book of Histology
L.P.Gartner & J.L.Hiatt
W.B. Saunders Company
An imprint of Elsevier
The latest edition.
(2) For practical:
Di Fiore’s Atlas of Histology
Lippincott Williams Wilkins
A Wolters Klumer Company
Philadelphia, New York, London.
The latest e The latest edition.dition.
COURSE 120 (HISTOLOGY)
Topics, Objectives & Sequence of Lectures
I- Preparation of tissues for microscopic examination:
§ Processing of tissues.
§ Staining of sections.
§ Nuclear envelope.
§ Nuclear matrix.
§ Plasma membrane.
§ Endoplasmic reticulum.
§ Golgi complex.
§ Secretory vesicles.
§ Cytoskeleton: Microtubules, Actin filaments,
§ Specializations of the cell surface:
Microvilli, Stereocilia, Cilia & Flagella.
§ Cytoplasmic inclusions.
§ Forms and characteristics of epithelium.
§ Basal laminae and basement membranes.
§ Intercellular junctions.
§ Classification (Types) of epithelia:
ü Epithelial membranes.
ü Glandular epithelia.
§ Cells of connective tissue.
ü Mast cells.
ü Plasma cells.
ü Adipose cells.
§ Fibers of Connective tissue.
ü Collagen fibers.
ü Reticular fibers.
ü Elastic fibers.
§ Ground substance.
§ Types of connective tissue.
ü Connective tissues proper.
v Loose (areolar) connective tissues.
v Dense fibrous connective tissue.
v Elastic tissue.
v Reticular connective tissue.
v Adipose tissue.
v Mucous connective tissue.
§ Hyaline Cartilage.
§ Elastic cartilage.
ü Intervertebral disks.
§ Bone cells.
§ Bone matrix.
§ Periosteum and endosteum.
§ Types of bone.
ü Compact bone.
ü Spongy ( Cancellous ) bone.
First Continuous Examination
I- Skeletal muscle.
§ Organization of skeletal muscle.
§ Organization of skeletal muscle fibers.
§ Sarcoplasmic reticulum and transverse tubule system.
§ Other components of the sarcoplasm.
II- Cardiac muscle.
III- Smooth muscle.
v Regeneration of muscle tissue.
Nervous Tissue (I):
ü Cell body.
§ Peripheral nerve.
Nervous tissue (II):
§ Glial cells:
- Schwann cells.
- Ependymal cells.
* Nerve endings: e.g. Pacinian corpuscle,
Muscle spindle, Motor end plate.
Lymphoid tissue (I):
§ B and T lymphocytes.
§ Lymph nodes:
ü Blood circulation.
Lymphoid Tissue (II):
ü Palatine tonsils.
ü Pharyngeal tonsil.
ü Lingual tonsils.
§ Elastic arteries.
§ Medium (Muscular) arteries
§ Blood Capillaries.
§ Medium-sized Veins.
§ Large Veins.
Topics, Objectives & Sequence of Lectures
Respiratory system I:
§ Nasal cavity.
§ Paranasal sinuses.
Respiratory system II:
§ Alveolar ducts.
§ Pulmonary Alveoli.
§ Blood-air barrier.
§ Lung macrophages.
Digestive tract (I):
§ Oral cavity:
ü Salivary glands.
Digestive tract (II):
§ General structure of the digestive tract.
§ Small and Large intestines.
Organs associated with digestive tract:
§ Gall bladder.
- Urinary bladder.
Endocrine glands ( I ):
- Hypophysis cerebri (Pituitary gland):
§ The phypothalamo-Hypophyseal system.
- Thyroid gland.
Endocrine glands (II):
- Adrenal glands.
- Parathyroid glands.
Third Continuous examination
ü Glands of the skin.
- Sebaceous glands.
- Sweat glands.
Male reproductive system:
- Vas (ductus) deferens.
- Seminal vesicle.
Female reproductive system ( I ):
- Oviduct (uterine tube).
Female reproductive system ( II ):
- Mammary glands:
ü Lactating mammary gland (active).
ü Non lactating mammary gland (inactive).
Nuclear matrix (SAP)
Cytoplasmic organelles (membranous & non-membranous)
Cell surface modifications
Connective tissue (C.T.) proper
v Losse areolar C.T.
v DenseC.T. e.g.: dense collagenous
v Adipose C.T.
v Cancellus (spongy) bone
v Compact bone
Neuron (structure & classification)
Muscular (medium size) artery
Digestive system I:
Fundus of stomach
Digestive system II: