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تحميل الدليل التدريبي

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 ( I ) Basic Information

                 Course Title: 120 Anat. (Histology)

            Credit hours: 3 hours (For each student's group)

              Contact clock hours for male students:

                 (a) Group A:

                                 Lecture: 1 hour (Saturday, 1-2 pm.)

                                 Practical: 2 hours (Saturday, 2-4 pm.)

                 (b) Group B:

                                  Lecture: 1 hour (Wednesday, 9-10 am.)

                                  Practical: 2 hours (Wednesday, 10- 12 am.)


               Contact clock hours for female students:

                                 Lecture: 1 hour (Saturday, 9-10 am.)

                                 Practical: 2 hours (Saturday, 10-12 am.)




  (II) Course objectives:

  (A) General objectives:

         The course is designed to:

               (1) Provide the student with a basic knowledge of the structure                       of cells, tissues and organs of the body.

               (2) Correlate the microscopic structure of individual tissue                               components and organs with their functions.



  (B) Specific objectives:

         At the end of the course, student should be able to:

               (1) Describe and identify the components and organelles of the                         cell.                                                                                                         (2) Describe and identify the histological structure of the                                basic tissues of the body.                                                                        (3) Describe and identify the histological structure of the                               organs of the body.                                                                                  (4) Correlate the structure and function of the cells, tissues and                        organs.                                                     





 (III) Learning format:

   (A) Lectures.                                                                                                 (B) Practical sessions / Demonstrations                                                         

(A) Lectures:                                                                                              (i) General histology:                                                                

             1- Histological processing.

             2- Cell structure                                                                                            3- Epithelial Tissue.

             4- Connective Tissue Proper.

             5- Cartilage.

             6- Bone.

             7- Muscle Tissue.

             8- Nervous tissue.

             9- Lymphoid Tissue.


(ii) Systemic Histology:

             1- Circulatory system.

             2- Respiratory System.

             3- Digestive System:

                   - Oral cavity and salivary glands.

                   - Alimentary Tract.

                   - Liver, Gall bladder and Pancreas.

             4- Urinary System.

             5- Endocrine Glands.

             6- Skin (Integument).

             7- Male Reproductive System.

             8- Female Reproductive System.
















 (B) Practical sessions of Histology course (Course 120):

        (1) Demonstration of processing and staining of paraffin sections.

        (2)Demonstration of electron micrographs of the following:

            1- Cell nucleus:

                 Nucleolus, Heterochromatin, Euchromatin, Nuclear envelope,

                 Perinuclear cisterna, Nuclear pores.

            2- Cell cytoplasm:

                 Cell membrane, Mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, Rough  endoplasmic reticulum, Smooth endoplasmic reticulum,

                  Lysosomes, Centrioles, Cilia, Microvilli.  


 (3) Epithelial membranes:

            1. Simple squamous epithelium (e.g. endothelium).

            2. Simple cuboidal epithelium (e.g. Thyroid gland).

            3. Simple columnar epithelium with goblet cells (e.g. small                           intestine).

            4. Pseudo-stratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells                 (e.g. nasal septum).

            5. Non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium                                          (e.g. esophagus)

            6. Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium (e.g. Skin).

            7. Transitional epithelium (e.g. Urinary bladder).


        (4) Epithelial glands:

            1. Simple tubular gland (e.g. intestinal crypts of colon).

            2. Simple branched tubular gland (e.g. fundic gastric glands).

            3. Sebaceous gland (in skin).

            4. Serous acini (e.g. Parotid salivary gland or Pancreas).

            5. Mucous acini & mucoserous acini (e.g. Sublingual salivary                      gland).



(5) Connective tissue proper (C.T.):

             1. Loose (areolar) C.T.

             2. Dense fibrous C. T. (Regular type):e.g. Tendon.

             3.       "      "           "     (Irregular type):e.g. Skin.

             4. Elastic C.T. (e.g. Aorta)

             5. Reticular C.T. (silver stain): e.g. Liver.

             6. Adipose C.T.

             7. Mucous C.T. (e.g. Umbilical cord).





       (6) Cartilage:

                       1. Hyaline cartilage (e.g. Trachea).

             2.  Fibrocartilage (e.g. Intervertebral disc).                  

             3. Elastic cartilage (e.g. Ear pinna).



       (7) Bone:

              1. Compact bone (Ground section).

              2. Spongy (Cancellous) bone (Decalcified section).


        (8) Muscle tissue:

              1. Skeletal muscle ( L.S.):e.g. Tongue.

              2. Skeletal muscle (T.S.).

              3. Cardiac muscle.

              4. Smooth muscle.


        (9) Nervous tissue:

              1. Peripheral nerve trunk.

              2. Spinal ganglion (Dorsal root ganglion)

              3. Sympathetic ganglion.

              4. Motor end plate.

              5. Muscle spindle.

              6. Pacinian corpuscle.


       (10) Lymphoid tissue:

               1. Lymph node.

               2. Spleen.

               3. Palatine tonsil.

               4. Thymus.


       (11) Circulatory system:

                1. Aorta.

                2. Medium-sized artery.

                3. Medium-sized vein.


       (12) Respiratory system:

               1.Nasal septum.

               2. Trachea.

               3. Lung.




       (13) Digestive system:

                1. Lip.

                2. Tongue.

                3. Parotid salivary gland.

                4. Submandibular salivary gland.

                5.  Sublingual salivary gland.

                6. Oesophagus.

                 7. Fundus of stomach.

                8. Pylorus of stomach.

                9. Duodenum.

               10. Ileum

               11. Colon.

               12. Vermiform appendix.

               13. Liver.

               14. Gall bladder.

               15. Pancreas.


       (14) Urinary system:

                1. Kidney.

                2. Ureter.

                3. Urinary bladder.


       (15) Endocrine glands:

                1. Pituitary gland.

                2. Thyroid gland.

                3. Parathyroid gland.

                4. Adrenal gland.

                5. Islets of Langerhans.

      (16) Skin:

                1. Thick skin.

                2. Thin skin.


      (17) Male reproductive system:

                1. Testis.

                2. Epididymis.

                3. Vas deferens.

                4. Prostate.

                5. Penis.






      (18) Female reproductive system.


                2. Corpus luteum.

                3. Fallopian (uterine) tube.

                4. Uterus.

                5. Vagina

                     6. Inactive mammary gland (non-lactating).

                7. Active mammary gland (lactating).

                8. Placenta.




































  Students are assessed by written and practical examinations consisting of three continuous assessment examinations and one final comprehensive examination at the end of the year in addition to two Quizzes.


 (A) Examinations' schedule and marks' distribution

       (For academic year 1428-1429H ONLY):

  First semester:

  (1) Quiz 1.                                                                      (5 marks)

  (2) First continuous assessment: mid semester.             (15 marks)

  (3) Second continuous assessment (Mid-year exam):    (20 marks)


  Second semester:

  (1) Quiz 2.                                                                      (5 marks)

  (2) Third continuous assessment: mid semester             (15 marks)

  (3) Final exam (End of year exam):                               (40 marks)


 (B) Examination Format:

      All written examinations consist of M.C.Q. (One best answer)

     (1) Continuous assessment examinations:

        (i) Written exam: comprising 30 questions.

        (ii) Practical exam: comprising slides for identification.


     (2) Quizzes: written only.


     (3) Examination Format for final exam:

       (i) Written exam (75% of the marks): comprising 60 questions.            

       (ii) Practical exam (25% of the marks): comprising slides for



 (C) Examinations' contents:

     (1) First continuous assessment (CAT 1):

          Comprehensive exam (i.e. includes all topics studied from the start

          of the academic year).

      (2) Second continuous assessment (CAT 2): comprehensive exam:

            (i) Written examination:

            30% of questions are from topics included in the first                                 continuous assessment.

            70% of questions are from topics given after the first

            continuous examination.

            (ii) Practical examination: comprehensive exam.



     (3) Third continuous assessment (CAT 3):

            It includes topics studied from the beginning of the second

            Semester up to the time of examination.


   (4) Quizzes:

             Each quiz includes topics given prior to the week preceding the

             date of the quiz.

     (5) Final examination:

               It is a comprehensive examination including all topics studied

               throughout the academic year.

               30% of the questions are from topics studied during                                   the first semester.

               70% of the questions are from topics studied during                                   the second semester.

               The student is required to fulfill attendance requirements (75%)

                before being admitted to the examination.



(D) Resit (second chance) final examination:

       Marks' Distribution:

        Written exam: 70 marks.

        Practical exam: 30 marks.



  (E) Resit examination for continuous assessment and quiz:

       (1) The absent student should appeal to the chairman of 

             Anatomy department for permission to sit for a resit examination

             within ONE WEEK of the date  of the examination.                            

       (2) Resit examination will be in the form of essay questions.












 The following changes will be implemented as

from the academic year 1429-1430H concerning examinations schedule and marks distribution:


First semester:

(1) Quiz 1:                                                                      (5 marks).

(2) First continuous assessment: written only              (10 marks).

(3) Second continuous assessment: comprehensive      (30 marks):

                  Written examination: (20 marks).

                  Practical examination:(10 marks).


Second semester:

(1) Quiz 2:                                                                      (5 marks).

(2) Third continuous assessment: written only             (10 marks).


Final examination:                                                       (40 marks):

                  Written examination: (30 marks).

                  Practical examination: (10 marks).























 (V) Suggested reference textbooks for the course      120 Anat.  (Histology):   


(1) For theoretical:

     Color Text Book of Histology

                                                                           L.P.Gartner & J.L.Hiatt

W.B. Saunders Company

An imprint of Elsevier

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

The latest edition.


 (2) For practical:

        Di Fiore’s Atlas of Histology


Lippincott Williams Wilkins 

A Wolters Klumer Company

Philadelphia, New York, London.

The latest e The latest edition.dition.



























Topics, Objectives & Sequence of Lectures

First Semester

Week 1

I-  Preparation of tissues for microscopic examination:

§        Processing of tissues.

§        Staining of sections.

II- Nucleus

§        Nuclear envelope.

§        Chromatin.

§        Nucleolus.

§        Nuclear matrix.

Week 2

 The Cytoplasm

§        Plasma membrane.

§        Mitochondria.

§        Ribosomes.

§        Endoplasmic reticulum.

§        Golgi complex.

§        Lysosomes.

§        Peroxisomes.

§        Secretory vesicles.

§         Cytoskeleton: Microtubules, Actin filaments,

                   Intermediate filaments.

§        Specializations of the cell surface:

            Microvilli, Stereocilia, Cilia & Flagella.

§        Cytoplasmic inclusions.

Weeks 3

   & 4

Epithelial Tissue:

§        Forms and characteristics of epithelium.

§        Basal laminae and basement membranes.

§        Intercellular junctions.

§        Classification (Types) of epithelia:

ü     Epithelial membranes.

ü     Glandular epithelia.

Week 5

Connective Tissue:

§        Cells of connective tissue.

ü     Fibroblasts.

ü     Macrophages.

ü     Mast cells.

ü     Plasma cells.

ü     Adipose cells.

ü     Leukocytes.

§        Fibers of Connective tissue.

ü     Collagen fibers.

ü     Reticular fibers.

ü     Elastic fibers.

§        Ground substance.

§        Types of connective tissue.

ü     Connective tissues proper.

v    Loose (areolar) connective tissues.

v    Dense fibrous connective tissue.

v    Elastic tissue.

v    Reticular connective tissue.

v    Adipose tissue.

v    Mucous connective tissue.


Week 6


§        Hyaline Cartilage.

ü     Matrix.

ü     Perichondrium.

ü     Chondrocytes.

ü     Growth.

§        Elastic cartilage.

§        Fibrocartilage.

ü     Intervertebral disks.

Week 7


§        Bone cells.

ü     Osteoblasts.

ü     Osteocytes.

ü     Osteoclasts.

§        Bone matrix.

§        Periosteum and endosteum.

§        Types of bone.

ü     Compact bone.

ü     Spongy ( Cancellous ) bone.

Week 8

First Continuous Examination

Week 9






Muscular Tissue:

   I- Skeletal muscle.

§        Organization of skeletal muscle.

§        Organization of skeletal muscle fibers.

§        Sarcoplasmic reticulum and transverse tubule system.

§        Other components of the sarcoplasm.

  II- Cardiac muscle.

  III- Smooth muscle.

v    Regeneration of muscle tissue.

Week 10

Nervous Tissue (I):

§        Neuron

ü     Cell body.

ü     Denderites.

ü     Axons: 

                               Myelinated axons.                          

                               Unmyelinated axons.

§        Peripheral nerve.

§        Ganglia:

                          Sensory ganglia.

                          Autonomic ganglia.

Week 11

Nervous tissue (II):

§        Synapses.

§        Glial cells:

             - Oligodendrocytes.

             - Schwann cells.

             - Astrocytes.

             - Ependymal cells.

             - Microglia.

   *   Nerve endings: e.g. Pacinian corpuscle,

                        Muscle spindle, Motor end plate.

Week 12

Lymphoid tissue (I):

§        B and T lymphocytes.

§        Lymph nodes:

§        Spleen:

ü     Structure.

ü     Blood circulation.

Week 13

Lymphoid Tissue (II):

§        Tonsils:

ü     Palatine tonsils.

ü     Pharyngeal tonsil.

ü     Lingual tonsils.

            *    Thymus.

Week 14

Circulatory system:

§        Elastic arteries.

§        Medium (Muscular) arteries

§        Arterioles.

§        Blood Capillaries.

§        Venules.

§        Medium-sized Veins.

§        Large Veins.

Week 15

Practical Revision


                                              Course 120

Topics, Objectives & Sequence of Lectures

Second Semester

Week 1

Respiratory system I:

§        Nasal cavity.

§        Paranasal sinuses.

§        Larynx.

§        Trachea.

Week 2

 Respiratory system II:

§        Bronchi.

§        Bronchioles.

§        Alveolar ducts.

§        Pulmonary Alveoli.

§        Blood-air barrier.

§        Lung macrophages.

Week 3

Digestive tract (I):

§        Oral cavity:

ü     Tongue.

ü     Lip.

ü     Teeth.

ü   Salivary glands.

Week 4

Digestive tract (II):

§        General structure of the digestive tract.              

§        Esophagus.

§        Stomach.

§        Small and Large intestines.

§        Appendix.

Week 5

Organs associated with digestive tract:

§        Pancreas.

§        Liver.

§        Gall bladder.

Week 6

Urinary system:

    - Kidney.

    - Ureters.

    - Urinary bladder.

    - Urethera.

Week 7

Endocrine glands ( I ):

-  Hypophysis cerebri (Pituitary gland):

§        The phypothalamo-Hypophyseal system.

§        Adenohypophysis.

§        Neurohypophysis.

- Thyroid gland.

Week 8

Endocrine glands (II):

    -  Adrenal glands.

    -  Parathyroid glands.


Week 9

Third Continuous examination

Week 10

Skin (Integument):

ü     Epidermis.

ü     Dermis.

ü     Glands of the skin.

        -  Sebaceous glands.

                                   -  Sweat glands.


Week 11

Male reproductive system:

   - Testis.

   - Epididymis.

   - Vas (ductus) deferens.

   - Seminal vesicle.

   - Prostate.   

   - Penis.


Week 12

Female reproductive system ( I ):

  -  Ovary.

  -  Oviduct (uterine tube).


Week 13

Female reproductive system ( II ):

  - Uterus.

  - Vagina.

  - Placenta.

  - Mammary glands:

ü     Lactating mammary gland (active).

ü     Non lactating mammary gland (inactive).








COURSE 112(Dental)

Course Title: Human Anatomy and Histology


Course Symbol: 112 Anat.


Course Unit: 10 (3+7)


Learning Format (Instructional Hours):

Lectures: 3 hours per week

Tutorial and Practical: 3X2 per week/students group


Course Description:

This course aims at enhancing study of the basic knowledge of Macroscopic Anatomy (Morphology), General embryology and Development of the face, neck and skull; and Microscopic Anatomy (Histology) for students of college of Dentist.



At the end of this course the students should be able to:

1.      Describe the cell structure and the functions of its components.

2.      Describe the structure of the basic body tissues.

3.      Describe the macroscopic and microscopic structure of the organ system of the human body.

4.      Describe anatomical terms, and human biology.

5.      Describe the detailed anatomy of the head and neck.

6.      Describe the Human general embryology and development of the face, mouth, palate, neck and skull.


Teaching Format:

1.      Formal lectures.

2.      Tutorial and practical sessions.


Recommended Text Books:

(1). The Developing Human.

      By MOOR and PERSAUD 7th Edition Saunders.


(2). Clinical Anatomy for Medical Students.

       By RICHARD S. SNELL 7th Edition Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


(3). Basic Histology.

      By, Luiz Junqueira and Jose Carneiro Tenth Edition, 2003.


(4).Essential of Human Anatomy & Physiology.

       By, Elaine N. Marieb Seventh Edition


Course Contents:

(I)                 Morphology (Gross Anatomy):

  1. Introduction to Anatomy:

        Anatomical terms, Terms of position and movements and body        cavities.

2. Skeletal system:

       Classifications and functions of bones:

        Axial skeleton: Main bones of the cranium and face; Vertebral       column; intervertebral discs, curvatures of the vertebral column, general features of the vertebra, thoracic cage, sternum and classifications of ribs.

  Appendicular skeleton, bones of the shoulder girdle (clavicle and scapula).

  Main and general features of the bones of the upper and lower limbs.

3.  Joints:

  Classifications of joints; Features of each type.

 Morphological and functional classifications of synovial joints.

   4.Muscular system:

           Classification of muscles in brief.

 Introduction about skeletal muscles (origin, insertion tendon, and           apneurosis). Types of body movements, important muscles of face, neck thorax, abdomen, and limbs.

   5. Nervous system:

           Divisions of nervous system into central and   peripheral nervous system, Classifications of neurons in brief.

Different parts of the brain (lobes of the cerebrum and cerebellum,


Diencephalon, Brain stem, Spinal cord -Location extent, internal

structure of segments in brief, cervical and lumber enlargements, cauda equine.

Meninges and C.S.F. in brief and lumber puncture.

Spinal and cranial nerves in brief.

Autonomic nervous system in brief.

 6. Circulatory system:

    Heart, location, shape, chambers, apex, and  base. Pericardium, brief account of systemic and pulmonary circulations. Portal circulation. Valves of the heart. Major arteries and veins of the body. Arteries of the brain. Arterial pressure points, carotid, brachial, femoral and popliteal arteries.

7. Lymphatic System: Lymphatic groups, lymph nodes, lymph glands, and lymph vessels.

8. Respiratory system:

      Nose parts, structure and function. Para    nasal sinuses and their functions. Pharynx-three parts, adenoids, palatine tonsils. Larynx-main cartilages, vocal cords, functions. Trachea and bronchi, pleura and lungs in brief.

9. Digestive system:

     Structure and functions of the digestive system, in brief. Oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines.

     Accessory digestive organs- liver gall bladder pancreas and salivary glands.

10. Urinary system:

     Kidneys- location size shape, capsule, structure within the hilum. Parts of the ureter. Urinary bladder, Size, location, shape, trigone, internal and external sphincters. Urethra, differences between male and female urethra.

11. Male reproductive system:

      Testis -location, scrotal sac, tunica albuginea, somniferous tubules, rete testis, efferent ductules, functions of the testis. Duct system- epididymis.

     Ejaculatory ducts and urethra.

     Accessory glands- prostate, seminal vesicles and bulbo urethral glands.

12. Female reproductive system:

     Ovaries- size shape and location, hormones produced by the ovaries.

     Duct system; Fallopian tubes, uterus, parts and layers of the uterus and vagina.


13. Endocrine glands:

      Pituitary, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Suprarenal, and Gonads.

14. Head and Neck:

   -Skeleton of the head and neck:

     Skull, mandible, hyoid bone, and cervical vertebrae.

     Scalp: layers, muscles, vessels, and innervations of the scalp.

     Face: Muscles, vessels, and innervations of face.

     Posterior triangle of the neck.

    Anterior triangle of the neck.

    Sub occipital triangle.

    Cranial cavity:

    Meninges, Dural venous sinuses, Emissary veins, and pituitary gland.

    Eye lids, lacrimal apparatus.

    Orbit: extra ocular muscles, sensory, and motor nerves, ophthalmic vessels.

    Temporal and infratemporal regions: muscles of mastication, mandibular and maxillary nerves, and maxillary artery.

    Submandibular region: Digastric muscle, submandibular salivary gland, and hyoglossus muscle.

    Deep structures infront of the neck:

    Thyroid, and parathyroid glands, trachea, esophagus.

    Major vessels of the head and neck: Subclavian, common carotid, internal carotid, external carotid arteries, and internal jugular vein.

  • Cranial nerves.
  • Cervical sympathetic chain.
  • Scalene muscles.
  • Prevertebral muscles.
  • Oral cavity.
  • Palate.
  • Tongue.
  • Nasal cavity and Paranasal sinuses.
  • Pharynx.
  • Larynx.
  • Ear.
  • Lymphatic drainage of the head and neck.
  • Joints of the head and neck.
  • X-ray of the head and neck.








(II)    Histology:

1. Introduction.

2.         Cell:

·   Nucleus: nuclear envelope, nucleoli, chromatin, nuclear matrix.

·   Cell division (Mitosis).

·   Plasma membrane: specializations of the plasma membrane.

·   Cytoplasm: cytoplasmic organelles.


3. Epithelial tissue:

·   Special characteristics of the epithelium.

·   Classification of the epithelium

o                   Simple epithelium.

    •             Stratified Epithelium.
    •             Glandular Epithelium. 

·   Epithelial membranes.

·        Glandular epithelium.

·        Intercellular Junctions.

4. Connective tissue (C.T.):

o       Common characteristics.

o       Types:

        1- C.T. Proper.

        2- Cartilage.

        3- Bone.

5. Muscle tissue:

o       Types: 1- Skeletal Muscle.

§          2- Cardiac Muscle.

§          3- Smooth Muscle.

6. Nervous Tissue:

o       Structure and function: Neurons and supporting cells.

o       Structure of a peripheral nerve.

o       Ganglia (Spinal, Autonomic)

o       Nerve endings (Muscle spindle, Motor end plate)

7. Vascular system:

o       Blood vessels:


             Medium sized artery

             Medium sized vein

             Blood capillaries.




8. Lymphatic system:

o       Lymph nodes.

o       Tonsils.

o       Thymus


9. Respiratory system:

-          Nasal cavity.

-          Larynx.

-          Trachea.

-          Lung.


10.     Digestive system:

-          Oral cavity: Tongue, major salivary glands.

-          Stomach: Fundus.

-          Small intestine: Duodenum.

-          Large intestine: Colon.

-          Liver, Pancreas

11.    Endocrine system:

o       Pituitary gland, Thyroid gland, Parathyroid gland.




                 Introduction to embryology, male and female reproductive systems.

1.   General embryology: Gametogenesis, Spermatogenesis, oogenesis, Ovarian cycle, and uterine cycle, fertilization, implantation, segmentation, morula, blastocyst, chorionic vesicle,.

2.   Changes in the bilaminar germ disc (embryonic plate). Formation of the notochord- formation of the secondary embryonic mesoderm (intaembryonic mesoderm).Trilaminar germ disc.

      Paraxial, intermediate, lateral plate mesoderm.

3.   Early changes in the ectoderm and formation of the neural plate, tube, and crest.

4.   Folding of the embryo.

5.   Fetal membranes: Chorion, Chorionic villi, Placenta, Yolk sac, Amnion, Allantois, Connecting stalk and umbilical cord.

6.   Twinning.

7.   Special embryology: Formation and derivatives of the pharyngeal        arches, clefts and pouches.

§         Development of face, mouth, palate and tongue.

§         Development of the skull bones.





o       Students are assessed by written and practical examinations:

o        Two continuous assessments, a midyear examination., and a final comprehensive examination.

o        In addition students are assessed by 2 Quizzes (one foe each semester),

o        One oral examination after the third CAE. And before the final examination.

o       Practical examinations are two one in the midyear and the other in the final.

o       Examination Schedule and distribution of the marks:


  • 1-In the first semester:

(1)    First quiz: In the sixth week, (Wednesday), five marks.

·        Nine questions (3 Histology +5 Anatomy).

        • 8 best answer.


    • (2)First continuous assessment examination: Ten marks
        • Comprehensive, in the   midweek of the semester,

       Ten marks.

        • Thirty questions (10histology +20 Anatomy).

·       30 best answer.

        • The first Continuous assessment Examination (1st.CAE):

 Contains all topic studied from the start of the       academic year.


    • (3)Midyear examination: (Second continuous assessment)

§        20 marks (15 Written+5 Practical).

§        Comprehensive, in the end of the first semester.

§        Thirty questions (10 histology +20 Anatomy)

§        30 best answer.

§        Practical examination: In Anatomy and Histology.

§        In the 2nd CAE: 1/3 of the questions are related to the

           topics of the 1st CAE; while 2/3 from the topics

            studied after the 1st CAE.


  • 2-In the second semester:

-          (1) First quiz: In the sixth week, (Wednesday), five marks.

·        Nine questions (3 Histology +5 Anatomy).

        • 8 best answer.



    • (2)Third continuous assessment examination: 10 marks
        • Comprehensive, in the midweek of the semester, 10 marks.
        • Thirty questions (10 histology. +20 Anatomy).
        • 30 best answer.
        • The 3rd Continuous assessment Examination (CAE):

 Contains all topic studied from the start of the       second semester


-          (3)Final examination: 40 marks

        • Comprehensive, in the end of the second semester.
        • 40 marks (30 Written+10 Practical).
        • Sixty questions (20 histology +40 Anatomy)
        • 60 best answer.
        • Practical examination In Anatomy and Histology.
        • One third of questions are related to topics of the first semester; while the other 2/3 is from topics of the second semester.


·      NB.

        • It is not allowed to attend any of the above mentioned exams with the mobile phone.
        • Policy for Reset Exam for CAE or Quiz:


  * The absent student should apply an appeal to the chairman of Anatomy Department for the missed examination within one week.

*Resit examination will be in the form of ESSAY WRITTEN EXAM for the absent student whose appeal was accepted by the Department of Anatomy.

*No reset exam will be held for the absent student whose appeal was refused by the Department of Anatomy.

*Recorded marks for the missed exam will be: ZERO




Department of Anatomy

College of Medicine

King Saud University






C o u r s E 281


For Pharmacy Students


















This specially designed course for the pharmacy students of King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, is intended to provide an introduction to Basic human Anatomy.  The course is divided into two parts:

I.                   Morphology (Gross Anatomy)

II.                 Histology


Course Objectives:

Morphology:  The course is designed to provide:

*       The student with the knowledge of different systems working in human body.

*       The student with the knowledge of different structure with their relations to each other.


Histology:    The course is designed to:

*       Provide the student with a basic knowledge of the structure of the cell, their components and functions.

*       Correlate the microscopic structure of individual tissue component and organs with their functions.


Helpful Suggestions:

Students often find anatomy a difficult subject to learn.  There are several possible         reasons for this of course, one of which is the terminology.  Students are exposed to            many new words that are unfamiliar and structures may often have more than one   name. Learning anatomy has sometimes been analogized to learning a new             language.  Rather than attempting to learn anatomy simply by memorization,           students are encouraged to become familiar with the meaning of          each word (usually       Greek or Latin derivation) when first encountered.  Also relating function and clinical associations with a structure often helps with understanding and remembering. 


Follow the entire laboratory instructions given by your instructor.  Examine all of the specimen/models provided.  It is helpful to get a theoretical understanding of   an area before attempting to locate a search for a specific structure or structures.       Focus on the essential features of each region and develop a mental picture of        what structures look like and their relationships.  Always keep up to date with the   subject matter and try to come to labs/lectures regularly.  Constantly refer to your textbook and be sure to ask your instructors for assistance if you don’t understand             the material.


It is not only advisable but essential that you examine many different specimens whenever available noting how they differ from textbook descriptions and from one another.


            Don’t be afraid to ask questions in labs/lectures.  Remember the Chinese     proverb. “He who     asks   is           a fool for five minutes, but he who does not remains a       fool forever”.  We want to be             helpful             and hope you find the course worthwhile.      


Course Textbook for Morphology:

Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology

Written by:  Elaine N Marieb, 7th Edition

Published by Benjamin Cummings


Course Textbook for Histology:

Color Atlas of Histology

Written by: L.P. Gartner and J.L. Hiatt (3rd Edition)



Advice to Students:

1)     Read the recommended textbook as shown in the “Reference” column of course schedule for each lecture before coming to class.

2)     Regularly attend all classes and practicals, regularly assess yourself whether you are running along with the program or lagging behind.

3)     You must actively participate in all activities in the laboratory.

4)     You can contact any of the teaching staff if you have questions or difficulties in the course.


          (A) TIMETABLE: (4 hours every week)




Lecture Theatre



11:00 AM – 12:00 PM

Room 2A 115

College of Pharmacy



1:00 PM – 2:00 PM


          Labs Every Alternate Next Week:



Lecture Theatre



2:00 – 4:00 PM

DR Room/Histology Lab, Level 1, College of Medicine, KKUH


          (B) Examinations:

Name of Exam

No. of Questions


(Total 100)


Topics of Exam

1st Continuous Assessment (only written)

Morphology (10)


Histology (10)



Morphology:  Introduction, Bones & Joints, Skeletal System & Muscular System,

Histology:  The Cell, Epithelium, CT proper, Cartilage & bones & Muscular System

2nd Continuous Assessment (Written & Practical)

Morphology (10+10)


Histology (10+10)



Morphology:  Nervous system, Cardiovascular system (I-II) & Respiratory System

Histology:  Nervous tissue, Vascular system, Lymphoid tissue & Respiratory System

Final Examination (Written & Practical)

Morphology (10+10)


Histology (10+10)


16th – 17th

Morphology:  70% Digestive system, Male & Female reproductive system & Urinary system, 30% 1st & 2nd CAE

Histology:  70% Digestive system, Urinary system 30%1st & 2nd CAE







Question format:


*       The question papers are based on multiple choice questions (MCQs). Each question will be              followed by 5 statements either true or false.

*       Each correct answered question = ONE Mark

*       Each wrong answered question = - ¼



*       Identification of structure within the allotted time.

*       Each correct answered question = ONE Mark No negative marking



*       70% attendance for fresh students

*       50% attendance for repeaters



1)     Introduction:

Anatomical terms (terms of position, direction and movements) planes, body cavities, classification and functions of bones.


2)     Skeletal System:

  Axial skeleton – main bones of cranium and face.  Vertebral column as a whole, intervertebral disc, curvatures. Thoracic cage, parts of the sternum.


3)     Appendicular Skeleton:

*       Bones of shoulder, girdle (clavivle and scapula), general features of bones of      upper and lower limbs.  Articulate pelvis, differences between male and female pelvis. (Addition of x-rays in the practical for long bones and girdle bones).

*       Classification of joints – (According to the structure), features of synovial joints.

*       Classification of synovial joints into uniaxial, biaxial and multiaxial, types of joints with examples.


4)     Muscular System:

Classification of muscles in brief introduction about skeletal muscles (tendon, aponeurosis, prime movers, antagonists origin and insertion).  Naming of muscles, important muscles of face, neck, thorax, abdomen, upper and lower  limbs.


5)   Nervous System I:

Division of nervous system, Terms, Meninges & C. S. F. in brief, parts of the brain.


     6)   Nervous system – II

            Spinal cord – Location, extent, cervical & lumber enlargements, cranial nerves          (names &

            functions in brief ). Spinal nerves (formation of spinal nerve).  Autonomic nervous system

            in brief.  


     7) Cardiovascular systemI

*       Its functions & divisions. Pericardium.

*       Heart - location, size, shape, chambers, apex beat or apical pulse,

*       Brief account of systemic & pulmonary circulations. Valves, blood supply of heart.


8) Cardiovascular systemII

*       Major Arteries & Veins of the body, Portal circulation & arteries of brain. pressure points

*       Arterial pulse – carotid, brachial, radial, femoral & popliteal.


9) Respiratory system

*       Nose – Functions, roof, floor, septum & lateral wall.

*       Para nasal air sinuses & their functions.

*       Pharynx – three parts, adenoids, palatine tonsil.

*       Larynx – main cartilages, vocal folds, functions

*       Trachea, bronchi & pleura in brief, lungs, names of respiratory muscles


10) Digestive systemI

      Oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small & large intestines.


     11) Digestive system – II

Accessory digestive organs – liver, gall bladder, pancreas, salivary glands, functions of saliva &



           12) Urinary system

*       Functions & organs of urinary system.

*       Kidneys – location, size, shape, hilum, structures at the hilum. Functions of the kidney

                        in brief. (Addition of X-rays in the practical for identification of kidney & ureter)

*       Ureters – Abdominal & pelvic parts.

*       Urinary bladder - size, shape, location, relations of posterior surface, internal & external

            urethral sphincters.

*       Urethra - differences between male & female urethra.


     13) Male reproductive system

*                   Testis – location, scrotal sac, tunica albuginea, seminiferous tubules, rete testis,

                        functions of testis.

*                   Duct system – Epididymis, ductus deferens & urethra.

*                   Accessory glands, prostate & seminal vesicles.


     14) Female reproductive system

*       Ovaries – size& shape location, ovarian ligament, ovulation, hormones

            produced by the ovary.

*       Duct system – fallopian tubes, uterus & vagina.



1)     Skeletal system:

*       Axial skeletonMain bones of cranium & face. Vertebral column as a whole,

                   inter vertebral disc, thoracic cage, sternum.

*       Appendicular skeleton – Bones of shoulder girdle (clavicle & scapula), general features

     of bones of upper & lower limbs. Articulated pelvis, differences between male& female


*       General classification of joints. Classification of synovial joints into uniaxial, biaxial &

       multiaxial types with examples


2)     Muscles:

Classification of muscles in brief, (tendon, aponeurosis, prime movers, antagonists origin &

insertion).  Naming of muscles, important muscles or fface, neck, thorax, abdomen, upper

& lower limbs.


3)     Nervous system:

Main nerves of upper & lower limbs, names of the cranial nerves, & parts of the brain.


4)     Cardiovascular system:

Heart, great vessel, chambers of the heart, main arteries & veins of the upper & lower limbs,

abdominal aorta, & inferior vena cava.


5)     Respiratory system:

Nose – roof, floor, septum & lateral wall, para nasal air sinuses, pharynx, adenosis, palatine tonsil,

larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, difference between left and right lung, & diaphragm.


6)     Digestive system:

Oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach,small & large intestines, liver, gall bladder, pancreas,

salivary glands & teeth.


7)     Male reproductive system:

Testis, scrotal sac, epididymis, ductus deferens & urethra, prostate & seminal vesicles.


8)     Female reproductive system:

Ovaries, ovarian ligament, uterus, fallopian tubes & vagina.


9)     Urinary system:

Kidneys, hilum, structures at the hilum, ureter, abdominal & pelvic parts, urinary bladder,

urethra, differences between male & urethra.



1)     The cell

*       Nucleus

*       Nuclear envelop

*       Chromatin

*       Nucleolus

*       Nuclear matrix (SAP)



*       Cytoplasmic organelles(membranous & non-membranous)

*       Cell membrane

*       Cell surface modifications


2)     Epithelium

*       Special characteristics

*       Classification

*       Epithelial membranes

*       Glandular epithelium


3)     Connective tissue (C.T.) proper

*       General characteristics

*        Types:

v       Losse areolar C.T.

v       DenseC.T. e.g.: dense collagenous

v       Adipose C.T.

*        Cartilage

v       Hyaline

v       Elasti

v       Fibrocartilage

*        Bone

v       Cancellus (spongy) bone

v       Compact bone


4)     Muscular tissue:

*       Skeletal muscle

*       Cardiac muscle

*       Smooth muscle


5)     Nervous tissue

*       Neuron (structure & classification)

*       Neuralgial cell

*       Peripheral nerve

6)     Vascular system:

*       Muscular (medium size) artery

*       Veins


7)     Lymphoid tissue:

*       Lymph node

*       Thymus


8)     Respiratory system:

*       Trachea

*       Lung


9)     Digestive system I:

*       General architecture

*       Fundus of stomach

*        Duodenum

*        Colon


10)  Digestive system II:

*       Liver

*       Pancreas


11)  Urinary system:

*       Kidney

*       Urinary bladder



          General History Slides:

*       Epithelium:

a)      Simple cubidal epithelium ex: thyroid

b)     Simple columnar epithelium ex: stomach

c)      Simple columnar epithelium with goblet cells ex: duodena

d)     Stratified squamous nonkeratinzed epithelium ex: esophagus

e)      Startified squamous: keratinized ex: skin

f)        Transitional epithelium ex: urinary bladder

*       Connective tissue:

a)      Areolar C.T.

b)     Adipose C.T.

c)      Dense fibrous C.T. tendon

*       Cartilage

a)      Hyaline cartilage

b)     Elastic cartilage

*       Bone:

a)      Compact bone T.S.

b)     Spongy bone

*       Muscular tissue:

a)      Striated muscle (L.S.)

b)     Cardiac muscle (L.S.)

c)      Smooth muscle (L.S.)

*       Nervous tissue:

a)      Pseudo-unipolar neuron (e.g. spinal ganglion)

b)     Multipolar neuron (e.g.sympathetic ganglion)

c)      Peripheral nerve trunk


          Systemic Histology  Slides:

*       Lymphoid tissue:

a)      Thymus

b)     Lymph node

*       Respiratory system:

a)      Trachea

b)     Lung

*       Blood vessels:

a)      Artery & vein

*       Digestive system:

a)      Fundus of stomach

b)     Duodenum

c)      Colon

*       Digestive glands:

a)      Liver 

b)     Pancreas

*       Urinary system:

a)      Kidney

b)     Urinary bladder


(A)  TIMETABLE: (4 hours every week)




Lecture Theatre



11:00 AM – 12:00 PM

College of Medicine



1:00 PM – 2:00 PM









                   Labs Every Alternate Next Week:



Lecture Theatre



2:00 – 4:00 PM

Histology Lab, Level 1, College of Medicine, KKUH



2:00 – 4:00 PM

College of Medicine


                   (B)  Examinations:

Name of Exam

No. of Questions


(Total 100)


Topics of Exam

1st Continuous Assessment (only written)

Morphology (10)


Histology (10)



Morphology:  Introduction, Bones & Joints, Skeletal System & Muscular System,


Histology:  The Cell, Epithelium, CT proper, Cartilage & bones & Muscular System

2nd Continuous Assessment (Written & Practical)

Morphology (10+10)


Histology (10+10)




Morphology:  Nervous system, Cardiovascular system (I-II) & Respiratory System

Histology:  Nervous tissue, Vascular system, Lymphoid tissue & Respiratory System

Final Examination (Written & Practical)

Morphology (10+10)


Histology (10+10)


16th – 17th


Morphology:  70% Digestive system, Male & Female reproductive system & Urinary system, 30% 1st & 2nd CAE

Histology:  70% Digestive system, Urinary system 30%1st & 2nd CAE




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