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تحميل الدليل التدريبي

أسئلة شائعة

Department              :           Clinical Laboratory Sciences

Course Number      :           CLS 414

Course Title             :           Immunology

Credit Hours            :           3 + 1 = 4 

Course Description:

This course is designed to give a basic understanding of theoretical and practical aspects of immunology. The first part of the course deals with the basic aspects of Immunology – Types of immunity, immune response, characterization of antigens, the humoral response ( different classes of antibodies ), the Complement system, the cellular response ( different types of T cells and their functions, the cytokines ), the immune regulation.

The second part of the course covers the Clinical aspects of immunology – Immunopathology, immunity to microbial infections, types of hypersensitivity reactions, auto-immune diseases,immunodeficiency diseases, transplantation,  tissue typing and rejection. 

CLS 414:   Lectures Outline

Weeks                                               Subjects   

1.                                 Introduction: history and terminology

                                    Types of immunity (natural and acquired immunity)

2.                                 Innate (natural) immunity, parameters and mechanism 

3.                                 Antigens, immunogenicity, types of antigens & mitogens

4.                                Organs and tissue of the immune system, primary and secondary

                                   lymphoid organs  

5.                                 Cells involved in immune responses - types and  subtypes, sites of their

                                    developments -& their  functions

6.                                 The immune response: humoral response, primary and secondary

                                    immune response ,mechanism of antibody production

7.                                Antibodies: structure, classes, subclasses and characters of

                                   immunoglobulins as well as their functions and uses

8.                                Monoclonal antibodies, hybridoma technology, and their applications.

                                    Anti-idiotypic antibodies and their uses

9.                                Complement system:  characters, mechanism of activation,

                                   biological functions and techniques involving complement

10.                              Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) antigens,Human leukocytes

                                    Antigens (HLA). Cellular distribution, structure and functions

                                    of MHC antigens.

11.                              The cellular immune response: mechanism of cytotoxicity reactions and

                                     measurement of cytotoxicity in-vitro, types and functions of


12.                               Immunoregulation and immunoprophylaxis

                                      Clinical Immunology: Immunity to microbial infections

13.                               Immunopathology: Types of hypersensitivity (Types 1,II, III, and IV ) 

14.                               Transplantation and Tissue typing, mechanism of tissue rejection

15.                               Autoimmune diseases  and immunodeficiency diseases


CLS 414:   Laboratory Schedule

Weeks                                               Subjects 

1.                                 Introduction: Separation of serum, plasma and complement.

                                     Serial dilutions & micro titration

                                    Serological tests (Ag-Ab interactions)

2.                                 Agglutination test:   Slide Agglutination test 

    Tube agglutination test

3.                                 Erythrocyte Passive haemagglutination test

                                     Reverse Passive haeamagglutination test, VDRL for syphilis

4.                                 Precipitation test: double immunodiffusion test

                                    Single radial immunodiffusion test 

5.                                 Electrophoresis and Immuno-electrophoresis

                                    Counter immuno-electrophoresis

6.                                 Anti-streptolysin O   Titration                                               

7.                                 Complement Fixation Test

8.                                 Mid Term Practical Examination 

9.                                 Enzyme linked Immuno Sorbant Assay (ELISA) (Direct & Indirect)

10.                              Direct and Indirect Immunofluorescence Test  

11.                               Methods in Cell Mediated  Immunity: Isolation and identification

                                     of lymphocyte populations  

12.                         Revision

13.                         Final practical Examination



First Mid Term Examination:                     15

Second Mid Term Examination:               15

Laboratory Quizzes:                                      5

Mid Term Practical Examination:               5

Final Practical Examination:                      20

Final Theoretical Examination:                 40


  1. Peter J. Delves et al., Roitt’s Essential Imunology, Blackwell Publishing, Latest Edition July 2006

  1. Ian R. Tizard., Immunology- An Introduction, Saunders College Publishing, Latest Edition.




Department              :           Clinical Laboratory Sciences

Course Number      :           CLS 415

Course Title             :           Virology

Credit Hours            :           2 + 0 = 2 

Course Description:

This course deals with virus structures, morphology and classification. It also covers the physical, biochemical, and biological characters of viruses which include: virus-cell relationship (virus replication cycle), virus-host relationship (virus pathogenesis) and virus immunity. A general outline for laboratory isolation and identification of viruses in clinical specimens will  be presented. The clinical presentation of some virus diseases, their pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, prevention and controls will also be discussed. 


CLS 415:   Lectures Outline 

Weeks                                               Subjects 

1.                        Introduction: history and terminology

2.                                 Virus characters - physical and biochemical 

3.                                 Basis of virus classification 

4.                                 Virus replication cycle (virus-cell relationship) 

5.                                 Virus pathogenesis and virus immunity

6.                                 Laboratory identification of viruses in clinical specimens:

                                    Direct diagnosis based on isolation, morphological and     

                                     biochemical characters

7.                                 Laboratory diagnosis of viruses in clinical specimens:

                                    Serological identification, Molecular diagnosis based on

                                    identification of virus nucleic acid, using DNA probe, DNA

                                     fingerprint and PCR

8.                                 Hepatitis viruses (HAV, HEV, HDV and TTV)

                                    Characters, epidemiology, pathogenesis and laboratory diagnosis 

9.                                 Hepatitis viruses (HBV & HCV) - Characters,  epidemiology, pathogenesis  

                                    and laboratory diagnosis 

10.                              Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): types, characteristics,

                                    pathogenesis, epidemiology and laboratory diagnosis

11.                              Herpes viruses: types, characteristics, importance and

                                    laboratory diagnosis

12.                              Encephalitis viruses: characteristics, pathogenesis and

                                    laboratory diagnosis

13.                              Meningitis viruses: characteristics, pathogenesis and

                                    laboratory diagnosis

14.                               Viral vaccines and anti-virus resistance



First Mid Term Examination:                      30

Second Mid Term Examination:                30

Final Examination:                                      40


Louis S. Kucera and Quentin N. Myrvik, Fundamentals of Medical Virology for Students of Medicine and Related Sciences, Publisher Lea Fabiger – Latest Edition




Department              :           Clinical Laboratory Sciences

Course Number      :           CLS 311

Course Title             :          Basic Microbiology

Credit Hours            :           3 + 1 = 4

 Course Description:

This course provides the students with basic theoretical and practical aspects of various groups of microorganisms to include bacteriology, virology, mycology, and parasitology as well as basic concepts of immunology and epidemiology. It also introduces the basic concepts of disinfectants, antiseptics, preservatives, Ames test, methods of sterilization, aseptic techniques and general microbial control.


CLS 311:   Lectures Outline

Weeks                                               Subjects   

1.                                General introduction to Microbiology

                                    Historical background and Classification of


2.                                 Introduction to Viruses:

                                 Classification, morphology and structure, Replication and 


3.                                 Introduction to Fungi:

                                 Classification, morphology and structure, Replication and


4.                              ntroduction to Parasites:

                                 Classification, General Characteristics of parasites and

                                 Medically important Parasites

5.                             ntroduction to Bacteria:   

                                Classification, Morphology and Structures

6.                            Bacterial Structures

7.                            Microbial Growth requirements:

                                Nutritional requirements, Physical requirments

                                Types of bacteria according to energy production

8.                             Bacterial Growth:

                                Growth curve, Constant and synchronous growth

9.                             Bacterial Metabolism: Catabolic Pathways and regulation

10.                           Bacterial Genetics:Mutation and mutagenic agents ,&Ames tes

                                Gene transfer ,PCR ,& genetic engineering

11.                           Bacterial Genetics continued ….

12.                          Microbial Control:

                                Principles, Disinfectants, antiseptics, and preservatives

                                Physical and chemical methods of sterilization Aseptic


13.                          Microbial control continued…

14.                          Pathogenicity of Infectious Diseases

15.                          Normal Microbial flora



CLS 311:   Laboratory Schedule

Weeks                                               Subjects

1.                                 Introduction to Microbiology laboratory techniques and 

                                    safety rules

2.                                 Introduction to Microbiology

                                   Types of Microscopes.

3.                                Examination of Stained Smear and Wet


4.                                Microscopic examination of Eucaryotic microoganisms .

5.                                Staining of Bacterial Cells ( simple staining )

6.                                Staining of Bacterial Cells ( differential staining )                                    

7.                                Preparation and Types of Culture Media

8.                                Bacterial Culture Techniques

                                   colonial Morphology

9.                                Bacterial Count ( Total & Viable )

10.                              Factors Affecting Microbial Growth

11.                              Physical and chemical methods used in microbial   


12.                                 Revision  

13.                              FINAL PRACTICAL EXAMINATION



Mid Term Examination: Written                15

Mid Term Examination: Practical            15        

Attendance and Reports:                           5

Practical Midterm                                         5

Final Practical Examination:                     20

Final Theoretical Examination:               40




  1. Cossart, P., P. Boquet, S. Normark, and R. Rappuolo. Cellular Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC, 2000.


  1. Kaufmann, S. H. E., A. Sher and R. Ahmed. Immunology of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC, 2001.


  1. Madigan, M. T., Martinko, J. M., and J. Parker. Brock Biology of Microorganisms. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1997


  1. Mims, C., A. Nash, and J. Stephen. Mims' Pathogenesis of Infectious Disease. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. 2001.


  1. Prescott,L. M., J. P. Harley, and D. A. Klein. Microbiology (3rd edition) Wm. C. Brown Publishers, Dubuque, IA, 1996.


  1. Salyers, A. A. and D. D. Whitt. Bacterial Pathogenesis. A Molecular Approach. ASM Press, Washington, DC, 1994.


  1. Tortora, G. J., B. R. Funke, and C. L. Case. Microbiology, An Introduction. (7th edition) Benjamin Cummings, San Francisco, 2002. 







Department              :           Clinical Laboratory Sciences

Course Number      :           CLS 212

Course Title             :           Medical Microbiology

Credit Hours            :           3 + 1 = 4


Course Description:

This is a general medical microbiology course intended for students outside the department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences. The structure of the course is based on presenting the fundamentals of microbiology to include structures, morphology and classification of bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. The students will be introduced to the pathogenesis of the various infectious agents. The course will also cover some topics related to community health, including the modes and sources of infections as well as prevention of these infections. 


CLS 212:   Lectures Outline 

Weeks                                               Subjects 

1.                                 General introduction, Historical Background & classification

                                     of microorganisms  

2.                                  Introduction to viruses,  

                                    Structure and morphology of viruses

                                     Classification / Replication  / Pathogenicity

3.                                  Introduction to Fungi

                                     Structure and morphology of fungi

                                     Classification / Fungal diseases               

4.                                  Introduction to Parasites

                                     Classification /General characteristics of protozoa

                                     Medically important protozoa, General characteristics of

                                     helminths/Medically important  helminths

5.                                  Introduction to Bacteria   

                                     Classification / Morphology

                                     Bacterial Structures / Bacterial replication

6.                                 Bacterial growth / Growth curve

                                    Factors affecting growth  

7.                                 Antimicrobial agents                

8.                                 Microbial control / Principles

                                    Physical and chemical methods          

9.                                Microbial control – Chemical agents

                                   Hospital acquired infections

 10.                             Pathogenicity of infectious diseases

                                    Normal microbial flora                

11.                              Upper respiratory tract infections

12.                              Lower respiratory tract infections

13.                               Wound and skin infections  

14.                               Sexually transmitted diseases

15.                               Food borne diseases, Water borne diseases 


 CLS 212:   Laboratory Schedule

Weeks                                               Subjects 

1.                                    Introduction to Microbiology laboratory

                                       Techniques and safety rules

2.                                    Introduction to light Microscopy

                                       Types of light microscope  

3.                                    Examination of stained smear and wet mounts

4.                                    Microscopic examination of eukaryotic microorganisms  

5.                                    Staining of bacterial cells and bacterial

                                       Structures ( simple and differential  stains )

6.                                   Bacterial culture media

                                       Techniques of cultivation  

7.                                   Microbial flora of skin and oral cavity

                                       Environmental sampling

8.                                   Antimicrobial Agents - Methods of sensitivity testing  

9.                                   Microbial count : viable and total counts

10.                                 Factors affecting microbial growth

11.                                  Physical and chemical methods used in microbial control             

12.                                  Revision  

13.                                 FINAL PRACTICAL EXAMINATION



First Mid Term Examination:          15       

Second Mid Term Examination:    15

Laboratory Quizzes:                          5

Mid Term Practical Examination:   5

Final Practical Examination:          20

Final Theoretical Examination:     40



1- Cano J. Raoul and Calome J.S., Microbiology, West Publishing Company, USA, Latest Edition

2- Eugene W. Nester et al, Microbiology- A Human Perspective, Mc Graw Hill, USA,Latest Edition

3- Tortora, G. J., B. R. Funke, and C. L. Case., Microbiology, An Introduction, (7th edition) Benjamin Cummings, San Francisco, 2002





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