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106 ZOO


Cell Types


Lecture 1


Page 105


A panoramic view of the cell

Prokaryotic cells & Prokaryotes

Page 106


Fig 7.4 structure of Prokaryotes

Page 108, 109


Figs. Only (7.7, 7.8)

Page 214


cytokinaesis in plant & Animal Binary



Fission (Fig. 12.8 a, b)

Page 215


Bacterial cell division. (Fig. 12.10)

Page 320


Viral genomes Fig 50 18.1 sizes



Types of genomes , Names of viruses



Capsids & Envelopes



Capsid : Structrane (capsomeres)



Viral envelopes : Origin, structure




Page 321


Why virus need host cells : = Ribosomes,  metabolic enzymes (Fig. 18.2)




Lecture 2






Page 322


Lytic cycle & virulent virus (Fig. 18.4)

Page 323


Lysogenic cycle & Temperatre virus Fig. 18.4

Page 324


Lysogenic cycle Fig. 18.5, structure of viral envelopes.

Page 325


Enveloped virus, Fig 18.6 DNA virus (Herpes)

Page 326


RNA virus Example HIV & Aids + Figure

Page 504


Function of prokaryotic cell wall (three Function)



The difference between prokaryotic cell wall & plant & Fungi



Gram stain



Fig. 27.4 pili

Page 505


Capsule & pili



Methods: The gram stain & structures



Many prokaryotes are motile. Flagellar action

Page 506


Fig. 27.5 Nucleoid region



Prokaryotes, nutrition groups:  photoautotrophs, Chemoautotrophs,  Photohetrotrophs, Chemoheterotrophs, Saprobs, Parasites






   Cell molecules

Lecture 1








Elements, Compounds, 25 elements required for life

Page 24


Trace elements

Page 41


Solution, solvent, solute, aq. Solution

Page 42


Hydrophilic, hydrophobic

Page 44


pH scale + Fig.

Page 45



Page 52


Isomers, Structural isomers

Page 53


Hydroxyl & carbonyl groups, alcohols aldehyde, ketone

Page 54


Table 4.1, carboxyl group

Page 55


Amino group + sulfhydryl+phosphate




Page 60





Monosaccharides Fig. 5.3

Page 61


Disaccharides    (Fig. 5.4 , 5.5)




Lecture 2




Page 62


Polysaccharides Storage poly Fig. 5.6

Page 63


Structural poly, Cellulose Fig. 5.7

Page 64


Bacteria digest cellulose,

Chitin (Figs. 5.8- 5.9)

Page 65


Lipid structure, bonds Fig. 5.10

Page 66


Triacylglycerol = trighyceride



Saturated,  unsaturated fatty acids Fig. 5.11

Page 67


Phospholipids, Structure, Behaviour toward water, Aggregates in water cell membrane (Figs. 5.12 + 5.13)

Page 68


Steroids + cholestrol

Page 68


Proteins : polypeptide, Amino acids, R group, (Fig. 5.15)




Lecture 3




Page 71


Four levels of protein structure



Primary structure + Fig. 5.18

Page 72


Change in primary structure and sickled RBC+ Fig.  5.19 Secondary structure

Page 73


The pleated sheet  Fig. 5.20

Page 73


Tertiary structure



Hydrophobic interaction



Disulfide bridges

Page 74


Fig. 5.22, Quaternary structure, Hemoglobian

Page 75


Denaturation, Fig. 5.23, Fig. 5. 24 Review

Page 76


Fig. 5.25, Nucleic acids

Page 77


DNA & RNA, Fig. 5.26, The nitrogen bases

Page 78


Fig. 5.27

Page 78, 79


Inheritance is based + Fig. 5.28




The Cell organelles


Lecture 1




Pages 130-135


Cell membrane from page

(A)  Membrane models Fig 8.1, 8.2 A & B

(B)  A membrane is a fluid mosaic of lipids

-What is a fluid Fig. 8.3

-Proteins movement Fig. 8.4

- What is mosaic Fig 8.5 




pages  107, 109, Page 111


Nucleus Fig 7.9, Structure & function of the following: a) Nuclear Membrane, b) Nuclear Pores

c) Nuclear Lamina, d) Chromatin, e) Nucleolus

Ribosomes build a cell’s protein (structure & function),   Fig 7.10




Lecture 2




page  111


The endomembrane system 

page 112


Two types of ER, the difference between SER & RER Fig 7.11

Page 112


Functions of SER, Rough ER & Synthesis of Glycoproteins, Transport vesicles

Page 113


Cell membrane, RER

page 113, 114


Structure of Function of Golgi apparatus  Fig. 7.12




Lecture 3




Page 114-115


Lysosomes are digestive Fig. 7.13 & 7.14

Pompe’s disease, Tay-sache disease, Fig 7.16 as a good review.

Page 117


Mitochondria structure & function & Fig. 7.17


Lecture 4




page 119


The cytoskeleton Fig. 7.21

page 120


Microtubules Table 7.2

page 121


Centrosomes & centriols Fig. 7.22

Page 121, 122


Cilia & Flagella Fig. 7.24 & 7.25

Page 123


Microfilaments  Fig. 7.27



Enzymes : (Chap 6)







Page (91 – 97) Figs. 6.9, 6.10, 6.12, 6.13, 6.14, 6.15, 6.16, 6.17




Lecture 1




page 91


Enzymes speed up metabolic reactions by lowering energy barriers (Fig 6.9 6.10)


page 92


Enzymes are substrate specific

page 93


The active site is an enz. Catalytic center Fig. 6.12

Pag 94, 95


A cell’s physical and chemical environment affects enzyme active, cofactor, Enzy inhibitors. (Fig. 6.13, 6.14,).




Lecture 2



Metabolic control often depend on allosteric.

Page 96


Feedback inhibition, coperativity (. Fig. 6. 15, 16) 

Page 97


The localization of Enz. Within a cell (, Fig. 6.17)



Energy production, cellular Respiration: (Chap 9)


Lecture 1




Page 147-148


Principles of Energy Harvest  

Page 148


Cell recycle the ATP they use for work. 

The NAD, NADH (Fig. 9.4)

Page 152


The Process of cellular Respiration   

Respiration involves glycolysis   (Fig 9.6).



the krebs cycle, and Election transport an over views

Glycolysis harvests chemical energy oxidizing glucose to pyruvate Fig. 9.7).




Lecture 2




page 156


The kerbs cycle (Summary of krebs cycle chemosmosis Fig. 9.10

Page 156-157,158 159


The inner mitochondria, Electron Transport.

(Fig. 9.11 show only) Fig. 9.12, Fig. 9.13. Fig. 9.15, Fig. 9.16).


Page 162-163


chemosomosis 159) Fig. 9.11. Fermentation

(Fig. 9.17, 9.18, 9.19, 9.20).



6. How things get into and out of cells


Lecture 1


Page 130-135    “Membrane models have …”

the term; Amphipathic

Page 132                      Fluid mosaic model

Page 133                      “Membranes as Mosaics of structure & Function”

            Term; integral proteins, peripheral proteins,

“carbohydrates and cell to cell recognition”

            Figure 8.5


Lecture 2


Page 136                      “Permeability of the lipid Bilayer”

            “Transport proteins”

Page 137                      “Passive transport is diffusion …..”

            Terms; concentration gradient.

            Passive transport.

                                    “Osmosis is the passive transport….”

                                    Terms; hypertonic, isotonic.

Page 138                      Terms; osmosis, osmoregulation

Page 140                      The term; facilitated diffusion

e. g. gated channels


Lecture 3


Page 140-141.               The term; active transport

e. g. Sodium-Potassium pump, Figure 8.14

Page 142                      The term; membrane potential, co-transport

Page 143                      “Exocytosis & endocytosis…. “

Terms; Phagocytosis, pinocytosis.

Receptor-mediated endocytosis

(Case study: Familial hypercholesterolemia)



Chapter 12: The cell cycle

Chap. 13: Meiosis and sexual life cycles



Lecture 1



Page 207-208

Cell division distributes identical sets

(genome-somatic cells-gametes-chromatin-sister chromatids-centromere-mitosis-cytokinesis-meiosis)


Page 209

  The mitotic cell cycle fig. 12.4



Lecture 2



Page 210-212

The stages of mitotic cell division in an animal cell figs. 12.5 ,12.6a

Page 213

Cytokinesis divides fig. 12.8

Page 228-230

The human life cycle fig. 13.4a

(karyotype-homol.chrom-sex chrom.autosomes-gametes-haploid cell-

fertilizationor syngamy-zygote-diploid cell-meiosis)



Lecture 3



Page 231

Meiosis reduces chrom. Number fig. 13.5

Page 232-233

The stages of meiotic cell division (fig. 13.6)

Page 231 then p. 235 236

Mitosis and meiosis compared fig. 13.7 Fig. 13.9

Crossing over fig. 13.9



Chapter 14: Mendel and the gene idea

Chapter 15:  The chromosomal basis of inheritance



Lecture 1



Page 240

Character-trait-true-breeding-hybridization-monohybrid cross P generation-F1, F2 generations) By the law of segregation, the two

Page 241-242 

fig. 14.4 table 14.1



Lecture 2



Page 243-244

Some useful genetic vocabulary homozygous-heterozygous-phenotype-genotype, The testcross (Fig. 14.6)

Page 245

By the law of independent assortment, each pair . (and first paragraph in p. 246 and fig. 14.7b)



Lecture 3




Page 253

Genetic diseases (briefly) Recessively inherited disorders

Page 254

Cystic fibrosis, Tay-Sachs disease

Page 255

Sickle-cell disease, Dominantly inh. Disorders

Page 255

Huntington dis., Multifactorial disorders, heart disease, diabetes, cancer, alcoholism, schizophrenia and manic-depressive disorder.

Page 270

Sex-linked disorders in humans

Page 269

Color blindness

Page 270


Page 272

Human disorders due to chromosomal aberr

Page 273

Down syndrome, klinefelter syndrome

Page 274

Cri du chat

Page 268

Sex chromosomes

Page 268-269

The chromosomal basis of sex varies with the organism (and fig. 15.8)



9.          Information codes and genes


Lecture 1


Page 281                      “Additional evidence that DNA is the genetic material of cell”

Page 281-283    “Watson & crick discovered……” 

Figure 16.3, 16.5 -16.6

Page 284-285    The term; semiconservative model

Figure 16.7-16.8 (للتوضيح فقط)


Lecture 2


Page 286-289    “A Large team of enzymes….”

The student should know briefly what is the meaning of the following: (Fig. 16.10, 16.12, 16.13, 16.15, 16.16)

DNA replication, Origins of replication, Replication fork

                                    DNA polymerase, Leading strand, Logging strand

DNA Ligase, Primer, Primase

                                    Helicase, Okazaki fragments


Page 296-298    “Transcription……….. (Fig. 17.2-17.4)

                                    What is transcription?

                                    What    is translation

                                    What mRNA & RNA Processing?

 “In the genetic code …….”

                                    The term; triplet code

                                    The term; template strand


Lecture 3


Page 298-299    “Cracking the code….”

Page 300-301                The student should know the following terms briefly).

-                      RNA Polymerase (Fig. 17.6, 7.7)

-                      Transcription Unit

-                      Transcription factor



Page 304                      “Translation is the RNA….”

                                    Terms; tRNA, Anticodon (Fig. 17.21, 22)


Page 306-310    “Ribosome”

                                    Terms; rRNA, P Site, A Site, E Site

Briefly what is initiation elongation and termination? (Fig. 17.14, 15, 16, 17, 19)


Lecture 4


Page 312-313    “Point mutation……….” Fig. (17, 21)

                                    The student should know what is ……..

-                      Point mutations

-                      Base-pair substitution

-                      Missense mutations

-                      Nonesense mutation

-                      Insertions

-                      Deletion

-                      Frameshift mutation

-                      Mutagens


Page 316          What is the gene Briefly the definition in page 316.  (Fig 17.23)




Radiation Biology


Page 24

Neutrons, protons, electrons atomic nucleus

Page 25           

Isotopes, radioactive isotopes

Page 30


Page 80


Page 281, 282  

Fig. 16.4 x-ray crystallography




Chemical signals in animals


Lecture 1



Page. 893

An introduction to regulatory systems

page 894,

The endocrine system and the nervous fig 45.1

page 895-896,

A variety of local regulators affect fig. 46.19

page 896,

Chemical signals bind to specific fig. 45.3,4

page 897,

Steroid hormones, thyroid fig. 45.5



Lecture 2



Page. 899,

The vertebrate endocrine fig. 45.6, tab. 45.1

Page 900

The hypothalamus and pituitary fig 45.7 a,b

Page. 900

Posterior pituitary hormones

Page 902

Anterior pituitary hormones

Page 902-903

The pineal gland is



Lecture 3



Page 903-904

Thyroid hormones function  figs. 45. 8,9


Page 904

Parathyroid hormone  fig. 45.10

Page 904-906

Endocrine tissues of the pancreas  fig. 45.11



Lecture 4



page 907-909

The adrenal medulla and  Fig. 45.15

Page 887

Nervous system and hormonal fig. 44.21 a,b

Page 910

Gonadal steroids regulate fig. 46.14





Nervous system


Lecture 1



Page 961

The nervous system is composed of neurons and supporting cells.


Structure of a vertebrate neuron, Fig. 48.2 P. 962

Page 963.

Functional organization of neuron (Sensory neurons, interneurons and Motor neurons). Reflex arc. Fig. 48.4



Lecture 2



Page 964

The nature of neural signals (Membrane potential)

Page 965

The action potential. Fig. 48.5 resting potential,


Depolarization, depolarization Fig. 48.7.



Lecture 3



Page 970

Chemical communication between cells.

Page 974-975

(Presynaptic cell & postsynaptic cell)

Page 971

Chemical synapse. Fig. 48.10 (Presynaptic membrane of postsynaptic membrane, synaptic vesicle, synaptic cleft, neurotransmitter). (Act, Epi, Noropi).



Lecture 4



Page 977

The nervous system of Vertebrate. & 978

Page 979.

CNS (brain & spinal cord) white matter, gray mater, central

Page 978

Canal, ventricle, cerebrospinal fluid.  Fig. 48.14 PNS (cranial nerves of spinal nerves. Fig. 48.15 parasympathetic div. sympathetic div. Fig. 48.16

Page 979-961

Stricture and function of the brain. (Forebrain, midbrain and hind brain briefly). (Fig. 48.17-48.19 only adult).




Reproductive System

(Chap 46) (Page 918-927) Figs. 46.8, 9,11 12, 13, 14, 15).


Lecture 1




page 918


Mammalian Reproduction

page 918-919-920


Human reproductive Male (Fig. 46.8)

page 920-921-922


Reproductive Anatomy Female  . (Fig. 46.9)




Lecture 2




Page 922.923-924


Spermatogenesis, oogenesis genesis

(Fig. 46.11, 12, 13) 




Lecture 3






A complex interplay of hormones regulate reproduction

page 925


The male pattern   (Fig. 46.14).

Page 925-926.


The Female pattern Menstrual cycle

Page 927


Menopause.  (Fig. 46.15.)







Questions & Answers


Choose from the following list of categories. You'll be presented with a series of questions that focus on the selected textbook chapter.

  • Mendelian Inheritance
  • Population Genetics and Multifactorial Inheritance
  • Molecular Genetics: Gene Organization, Regulation, and Manipulation
  • Molecular Genetics of Human Disease: Hemoglobinopathies
  • Biochemical and Molecular Genetics of Human Disease
  • Cytogenetics
  • Anatomy of the Human Genome: Gene Mapping, Linkage and Positional Cloning
  • Cancer Genetics
  • Clinical Genetics
  • Ethical Considerations


     FLUID-MOSAIC MODEL:                                   Max. = 9 points

    __  Singer/Nicholson or "differs from" Davson/Danielli

    __  Dynamic

    __  Phospholipid Bilayer

    __  Hydrophilic heads/hydrophobic tails and explanation

    __  Polar/Nonpolar

    __  Proteins - intrinsic/extrinsic

    __  Permeases (active + passive)

    __  Pores or apertures

    __  Functional "R" Groups

    __  Glycoproteins or carbohydrates (recognition)

    __  Diagrams appropriately used with explanation

    __  Selectivity


    TRANSPORT                                        Max = 9 points



    __  Definition of Diffusion

    __  Osmosis

    __  Size of molecule / polarity

    __  Facilitated Diffusion

    __  Function of pores



    __  Definition

    __  ATP

    __  ATPase

    __  Na+/K+  Pump

    __  Substances diffuse in-need transport out

    __  Carrier molecules and specificity



    STRUCTURE, as part of the eukaryotic cell:                    DESCRIPTION:

         (1/2 point each)                                                             (1 point each)

    __  Cell Wall                                                                  __  Cellulose

    __  Cell Membrane                                                         __  Protein/phospholipid or

                                                                                               phospholipid bilayer

    __  Cytoplasm                                                   __  Fluid with dissolved substances

    __  Vacuole                                                                   __  Protein/phospholipid or water

    __  Mitochondria                                                           __  Cristae, folding convolutions

    __  Ribosomes                                                  __  Two Subunits

    __  Golgi Bodies                                                           __  Phospholipid/protein,                                                                                                      cisternae, vesicles

    __  Chloroplasts                                                            __  Stroma, grana, thylakoids

    __  Lysosomes                                                 __  Phospholipid/protein membrane

                                                                                               or digestive enzyme

    __  Nucleus                                                                   __  Double nuclear membrane or


    __  Nucleolus                                                                __  RNA present, fibrillar

    __  Chromosome                                                           __  Double strand, DNA and Protein

    __  Plasmodesmata                                                       __  Cytoplasmic bridge

    __  Peroxisomes                                                           __  Membrane Bound

    __  Flagella                                                                   __  9 + 2

    __  Microtubules, microfilaments                                    __  Tubulin protein/actin protein

    MAX. = 4 points                                                            MAX. = 7 points

    TOTAL MAXIMUM = 10 points


    II.  STRUCTURE                                                            COMPARISONS/DIFFERENCES of a

                                                                                           simple cell and a complex cell.

                (2 points each pair / structure and comparison)

    __  Cell Wall                                                                  __  No cellulose; murein present

    __  Cell Membrane                                                         __  No cholesterol

    __  Membrane-bound organelles absent             __  Name one organelle

    __  OR AT LEAST 2:  vacuole, mitochondria,                  __  Absent

           nucleus, E.R., lysosome, peroxisome,


    __  AT LEAST 2:  microtubules, microfilaments,  __  Absent


    __  Ribosomes                                                  __  Smaller, few, free floating

    __  Nuclear membrane                                       __  Absent

    __  Genetic material                                                       __  Single, no protein, circular,


    __  Flagella                                                                   __  No 9 + 2


    BONUS:  Elaboration: evolution, size, two additional structures and comparisons for

                 each structure = one point each

    MAXIMUM = 10 points in Section II.




    PART I.  DESCRIPTION OF MITOSIS IN ANIMAL CELLS:                     Max. = 7 points


    __  division of nucleus

    __  daughter cells acquire the same number and kinds of chromosomes as

           in the mother cell

    __  process for growth or repair or asexual reproduction

    __  list phases in correct order (P,M,A.T)

    Prophase (one point each / max. 2)

    __  centrioles move apart

    __  chromosomes condense

    __  nucleolus is no longer visible

    __  nuclear envelope disappears

    __  asters and spindle form


    __  sister chromatids (chromosomes) are in a line at the midpoint of the spindle

    Anaphase (one point each / max. 2)

    __  centromeres uncouple (split)

    __  chromosomes move to opposite poles

    __  microtubules involved in the push/pull movement

    Telophase (one point each / max. 2)

    __  reverse of prophase

    __  nuclear envelope reforms

    __  nucleolus reappears

    __  chromosomes become diffuse

    __  spindle and aster disappear

    __  centrioles are replicated

    Points less frequently mentioned:

    __  function of centrioles

    __  definition of kinetochores

    __  description of polar microtubules and kinetochore microtubules

    __  definition of chromatids

    *In order to obtain a score of 10, there must be points in all three sections.

      If only two sections are written the maximum is 9.


    __  division of cytoplasm

    __  formation of a cleavage furrow

    __  occurrence of cytokinesis in the cell cycle

    Points less frequently mentioned:

    __  function of cytokinesis

    __  dense belt of actin and myosin microfilaments

    __  purse-string mechanism

    __  furrow occurs at location of equatorial plane

    __  cytochalasin blocks activity of microfilaments (stops cytokinesis)






    __  list G1, S, and G2 in correct order

    __  G1, S, and G2 are part of interphase

    __  chromosomes appear as a mass of chromatin material


    __  synthesis of cell organelles or cell doubles in size

    __  restriction (decision) point or point of no return


    __  synthesis or replication of DNA or DNA replication occurs during interphase


    __  synthesis of microtubular assembly, or prepare for mitosis

    Points less frequently mentioned:

    __  description of nucleosomes

    __  times in each phase

    __  growth factors

    __  some cells do not go beyond G1

    __  after cell passes "S", mitosis will usually continue

    __  colchicine prevents the formation of microtubules




    A.  EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP (1 point each)


    ___   1.  Experiment based on concentration gradient


    ___   2.  Experiment based on semipermeable membrane

                                        (dialysis tubing, thistle tubes, plant or animal cells)

    ___ *3.  Experimental set-up (design) adequate to produce measurable results


    ___ *4.  (2 max) Experimental variables are eliminated

                                        (mass, volume, time, temperature, tissue type, etc.)

    ___ *5.  Experimental set-up is exemplary

                                        (must include semipermeable membrane)


    B.  RESULTS ( 1 point each)


    ___ *1.  Describes a measurable change


    ___ *2.  Correctly correlates the observed changes with molarities of unknowns




    ___ *1.  Correctly applies principles of diffusion and osmosis in the interpretation of


                   (a correct analysis)

    ___   2.  Demonstrates an understanding of the concept of water potential

                   (hydrostatic/turgor pressure) in analysis of results



    D.  PRINCIPLES (1 point each)


    ___   1.  Demonstrates an understanding, or gives a correct definition of diffusion


    ___   2.  Demonstrates an understanding, or gives a correct definition of osmosis

             ** (must include both water and semipermeable membrane)

    ___   3.  Demonstrates an understanding, or gives a correct definition of selective



    ___   4.  Describes how solute size and/or molar concentration (hypertonic/hypotonic)        affect the process of diffusion through a membrane


        Max possible = 14


    *  No points if the lab will not work.

    **Osmosis: the diffusion of water through a selectively (semi)permeable membrane in

        the following directions:

         -from higher water potential toward lower water potential

         -from hypotonic (hypoosmotic) solution toward hypertonic (hyperosmotic) solution  

         -from higher water concentration toward lower water concentration

         -from lower solute concentration toward higher solute concentration

         -from region of lower osmotic pressure toward regions of higher osmotic pressure

         -from region of higher osmotic potential toward region of lower osmotic potential


                PART A. (6 Maximum)

                Membrane Structure (3 Internal Maximum)

                __ Phospholipid structure - hydrophilic, hydrophobic, amphipathic

                __ Phospholipid bilayer / fluid mosaic description

                __ Proteins embedded in the membrane

                __ Sterols embedded in the membrane

                __ Well-labeled diagram may replace one of the above


                Membrane Transport (3 Internal Maximum)

                __ Use of the term "selectively permeable" or a good definition of

                      selective permeability or an explanation of the role of phospholipids

                      or proteins including nuclear pore proteins in determining selective


                __ Description of the effect of size, charge, polarity, lipid solubility  on

                      membrane permeability


                Mechanisms + description related to structure:

                __ Passive transport: diffusion / osmosis + reference to membrane gradient

                __ Ion channel: transport as a mechanism for a change in permeability

                __ Facilitated diffusion: description (symport, antiport, uniport)

                __ Active transport: description

                __ Exocytosis, endocytosis, phagocytosis, pinocytosis: description


                (1 pt additional) A good example of one of the above mechanisms


                PART B. Role of the Membrane in the Production of ATP in     Photosynthesis or Respiration (6 Maximum)


                __ Involved molecules are embedded in the membrane

                __ Electron carriers are sequentially organized

                __ The energy comes from the flow of electrons

                __ H+ / Proton / pH gradient established

                __ Movement through the membrane generates ATP

                __ A specific protein makes ATP




    (2 pts) Neuromuscular junction

                            Action potential of neuron –> neurotransmitter

                            Concept of neurotransmitter

    (1 pt)   Idea of a sarcomere as a functional unit

    (1 pt)   Actin and Myosin in a sarcomere – (well labeled diagram w/text)

    (2 pts) Plasma membrane / sarcolemma (no point for name alone)

                            Receptor sites for neurotransmitters

                            Change in permeability / Na+  K+

                            Action potential distributed / depolarization

                            T-tubules (continuous with specialized E.R.)

    (2 pts)  Specialized E.R. – Sarcoplasmic reticulum (no point for name alone)

                            T-tubule (only if not given above)

                            Ca++ release / Calcium is involved with muscle contraction

                            Change in permeability – release of Ca++

                             Ca++ recaptured into S.R. – contraction ends / active transport

    (5 pts)  Cytoskeletal Elements

                            Actin and myosin (linked to muscle function)

                                         microfilaments / myofibrils / myofibrils

                            Actin – thin fiber (protein structure)

                                        Troponin (Ca++ interaction exposes active sites)

                                        Tropomyosin (is therefore unblocked)

                            Myosin – thick fiber (protein structure)

                            'clubs' – bridges – paddles for interaction with actin / ATP binding site

                                        ATPase site / hydrolysis of ATP

                            Sliding Filament Concept

                            Z line as a protein which separates sarcomeres (needs strong linkage)

                            ATP functions to release mysoin heads from actin sites

    (2 pts)  Mitochondria

                            ATP production – cellular respiration

                            Number of mitochondria is higher in muscle cells due to...

                            Proximity within muscle fiber

                            Chemiosmosis – elegant elaboration of ATP production


    (2 pts) Other – Rarely Mentioned:

                            Fast twitch / slow twitch (1 pt)

                            Elaboration (1 pt)         

                                        (FT) – glycogen and anaerobic

                                        (ST) – oxidation of glycogen via TCA and thus aerobic

                            All or nothing response

                            Switches to anaerobic respiration after oxygen consumed / Myoglobin

                            Muscles can only contract

                            Rigor mortis

                              (showing that ATP functions in release rather than contractive phase)

                            Muscle cell is a muscle fiber or muscle cell is multinucleate

                            Glycogen storage (mitochondria functions)

                            Creatine phosphate - PO4 replacement

    (1 pt)  Synoptic synchronization - exceptional chronology or spatial relationships



    Read each question and choose the best answer. Then mark the circle next to the letter for the answer you have chosen. 

    Student Reading a Graduated Cylinder
    1 The picture shows a student reading a graduated cylinder. Which change would help ensure that a more accurate measurement is made?
    A The student should be seated.
    B The cylinder should be held with two hands.
    C The student should be wearing insulated gloves.
    D The cylinder should be on a flat surface.
    bar graph showing results of a restocking program
    2 The graph shows the results of a restocking program in which shrimp raised on a shrimp farm are released into the wild. If this trend continues, about how many metric tons of shrimp will be released in 1999?
    F 12
    G 13
    H 14
    J 15

        Chart showing the nucleotide numbers in plant groups
    3 The chart shows the range of numbers of nucleotides among species of different groups of plants. Which of these groups has the largest range of nucleotide numbers among its species?
    A Bryophyta (mosses and liverworts)
    B Lycopsida (club mosses)
    C Gymnospermae (cedars and pines)
    D Pteropsida (ferns)
    4 After a patient has had hip replacement surgery, which person would most likely assist the patient in regaining muscle tone in the affected leg?
    F Surgical technologist
    G Genetic counselor
    H Diagnostic sonographer
    J Physical therapist

    5 Which of these is required during aerobic respiration?
    A Boron
    B Oxygen
    C Iodine
    D Nitrogen
    6 The process of cloning involves making an identical copy of a cell's --
    F cytoplasm
    G DNA
    H ribosomes
    J ATP

    Typical Diet of a Pallid Bat,
    Antrozous pallidus
    Organism Percent of Diet
    Moths 50
    Flies 25
    Cicadas 12
    Centipedes 8
    Scorpions 5
    7 The chart shows the types of invertebrates often consumed each night by a pallid bat. Which graph best represents these data?
    A Pie graph of Pallid Bat Diet C Pie graph of Pallid Bat Diet
    B Pie graph of Pallid Bat Diet D Pie graph of Pallid Bat Diet

        Graph showing the growth of a Daphnia population
    8 The graph shows the growth of a Daphnia population in a 420-liter aquarium. According to these data, what was the approximate Daphnia population by the end of the second day?
    F 40
    G 60
    H 80
    J 100


    Nutrition Information

    Cereal with
    Nonfat Milk
    (118 mL)
    Nutrient % Daily
    % Daily Value*
    Calcium 2 15
    Niacin 2 10
    Protein 6 15
    Carbohydrate 12 13
    *Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet. Your daily values may be higher or lower depending on your calorie needs.
    9 According to this label, which nutrient is obtained mainly from the cereal?
    A Calcium
    B Niacin
    C Protein
    D Carbohydrate
    10 The biome with the greatest number of species would also have the greatest variation in --
    F solar energy
    G habitats
    H annual rainfall
    J temperatures

    Thirty breeding pairs of rabbits were introduced onto an island with no natural predators and a good supply of water, shrubs, and grasses.
    11 Over the next few years, the rabbit population will probably --
    A remain relatively constant due to equal birth and death rates
    B die out due to inbreeding
    C increase until the food supply runs low
    D decrease as the number of rabbit per litter decreases
    12 Which piece of laboratory equipment is used for dissecting a flower's pistil?
    F innoculating loop
    G test tube holder
    H scalpel
    J forceps (tongs)

    Potential Health Hazards Potential Fire of Explosion Hazards
    • Poisonous: may be fatal if inhaled, swallowed, or absorbed through the skin
    • Contact may cause burns to skin and eyes.
    • Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution.
    • Flammable/combustible material: may be ignited by heat, sparks or flames
    • Vapors may travel to a source of ignition and flash back.
    • Vapor explosion and poison hazard indoors, outdoors, or in sewers
    • Runoff to sewers may create fire or explosion hazard.
    13 The best safety precaution to use when working with methanol is to --
    A wear protective ear devices
    B avoid contact with fumes
    C store it in a metal container
    D avoid using a CO2 extinguisher

    14 Dr. F. Agnes Stroud-Lee determines the origins of birth defects by studying chromosome abnormalities. Dr. Stroud-Lee’s research could involve all of these topics EXCEPT
    F chemicals that alter the DNA arrangement
    G plants that show variable rates of photosynthesis
    H radiation that can pass through cytoplasm
    J mitosis that produces multiple copies of genetic material


    Three shells and a ruler

    15 The average length of these snail shells is --
    A 2.1 cm
    B 2.3 cm
    C 2.5 cm
    D 2.7 cm

    Chart showing the root length of various prairie grasses

    16 The bulk of these short-grass prairie plants is underground. Then main benefit that these plants receive from this adaptation is --
    F more surface area for the absorption of water
    G more resistance to insect-transmitted diseases
    H increased ability to maintain cooler leaf temperatures
    J improved ability to detect areas high in carbon dioxide
    17 The body cells of an individual plant have 50 chromosomes. How many chromosomes would be found in the gametes produced this plant?
    A 5
    B 10
    C 25
    D 50

    18 Which of these DECREASES as the number of fish in a small pond increases?
    F Competition for food
    G Levels of body wastes in the pond
    H Number of available nesting sites
    J Number of predators
    Chart showing the energy of activation curve
    19 According to this graph, during a chemical reaction enzymes --
    A decrease the required time
    B raise the energy produced
    C lower the required activation energy
    D increase the initial-state energy

    Chart showing the transcription of DNA to mRNA

    20 Which mRNA sequence complements the above section of DNA?
    F C U A G G A
    G T C G A A G
    H C T A G G C
    J A G C U U C

    21 Bubonic plague is to fleas as Lyme disease is to  --
    A people
    B ticks
    C flies
    D deer


    Map of North America showing habitat of Woodhouse's toad

    22 Which of these toads would compete the MOST with Woodhouse's toad for food and habitat?
    F Map of North America showing a toad's habitat H Map of North America showing a toad's habitat
    G Map of North America showing a toad's habitat J Map of North America showing a toad's habitat

    A graph showing the white-tailed deer population between 1985 and 1995

    23 Why does the white-tailed deer population drop when the carrying capacity is exceeded?
    A Resources are too low to support the population.
    B Weather changes reduce the deer population.
    C The height of edible plants exceeds the height of the deer.
    D Competition by other animals is greatly reduced.

    A Study of Seed Germination
    Number of Trials Number of Seeds pH of Rainwater Average Germination (%)
    25 200 7.2 92
    25 200 7.0 93
    25 200 6.0 81
    25 200 5.0 20
    25 200 4.0 less than 5
    24 Which of these graph axes would be best to use to analyze these data?
    F A graph of the average germination in relation to the pH of rainwater H A graph of the number of seeds in relation to the pH of rainwater
    G A graph of the number seeds in relation to the number of trials J A graph of the number of trials and the average germination

    25 To save the wine industry of France, Louis Pasteur developed a process in which the wine was heated and cooled. This process still has a major effect in the United States because it helps --
    A control pathogens in milk
    B distribute antibiotics to children
    C reduce fiber in orange juice
    D provide vitamins to the elderly
    Insect Order Traits
    Orthoptera · Incomplete metamorphosis
    · Two pairs of straight, membranous wings
    · Biting and chewing mouthparts
    Coleoptera · Complete metamorphosis
    · One pair of hard wings, one pair of membranous wings
    · Tough exoskeleton
    · Biting and chewing mouthparts
    Lepidoptera · Complete metamorphosis
    · Two pairs of scale-covered wings
    · Hairy exoskeleton
    · Long, coiled tongue
    Hymenoptera · Complete metamorphosis
    · Two pairs of membranous wings
    · Chewing or sucking mouthparts
    · Many social species
    · Tough exoskeleton
    26 Which trait is best used to distinguish between Coleoptera and Hymenoptera?
    F Style of metamorphosis
    G Type of wing structures
    H Kind of mouthparts
    J Presence of an exoskeleton

    27 Which of these is most important for safety when heating a liquid in a test tube?
    A Have a fire extinguisher in the room
    B Heat the bottom of the test tube
    C Wear protective eyewear
    D Hold the test tube in the yellow part of the flame
    28 Which of the following is a consumer-producer relationship?
    F Roadrunners eating snakes
    G Snakes eating toads
    H Toads eating grasshoppers
    J Grasshoppers eating grass

    Fragments of
    Four Strands of DNA
    Fragment Nucleotide Order
    Q G T G G A T C T A
    R G C G C A T C A T
    S A C G T C A C C G
    T C A G G C T G A A
    29 The shaded areas of the chart show the nucleotides that four fragments of DNA have in common. Which fragment is most different from the other three?
    A Q
    B R
    C S
    D T
    30 Hot plates are usually safer heat sources than gas burners are. However, hot plates sometimes develop short circuits and catch on fire. Which class of fire extinguisher should be used to put out a burning hot plate?
    F Class A - Fires in ordinary combustible
              materials such as wood, paper, 
              cloth, rubber, and many plastics
    G Class B - Fires in flammable liquids,
              greases, oils, tars, oil-based paints,
              lacquers, and similar materials
    H Class C - Fires in or near live
              electrical equipment, where the use
              of a nonconductive extinguishing agent
              is of first importance
    J Class D - Fires that occur in
              combustible metals, such as 
              magnesium, lithium, and sodium

    Skeletal, Muscular, Circulatory

    31 The list shows the most important systems used when a horse takes a step. Which of these should also be included in the list above?
    A Endocrine
    B Reproductive
    C Digestive
    D Nervous
    32 In 1871 Friedrich Miescher isolated DNA and RNA from cell nuclei. Which field of science most benefited from Miescher’s research?
    F Botany
    G Microbiology
    H Genetics
    J Zoology

    Characteristics of Bacteria
    Common Name Description Appearance
    Bacillus Rod shaped
    Coccus Spherical
    Spirillum Spiral
    Prefix to Common Name Meaning of Prefix Appearance
    Diplo- Two
    Strepto- Chainlike strands
    Staphylo- Grapelike structures
    33 Which bacteria could be classified as a streptobacillus?
    A Three rod-shaped bacteria cells not connected C Two rod-shaped bacteria cells connected
    B Two rod-shaped bacteria cells connected lengthwise D Three bacteria cells connected end to end

    A diagram showing the stages in cellular respiration

    34 The diagram shows some of the stages in cellular respiration. Which of the following gives the stages in the correct order?
    F Electron transport system, Krebs cycle, glycolysis
    G Glycolysis, electron transport system, Krebs cycle
    H Krebs cycle, glycolysis, electron transport system
    J Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport system

    35 Organisms may be classified as consumers or producers. Which of these is classified as a producer?
    A An insect
    B A bird
    C A tree
    D A mouse
    36 Which question can NOT be answered scientifically?
    F What is the sound frequency of a bird’s song?
    G How fast does a flower grow?
    H What is the heart rate of a shark?
    J Which cat has the most attractive coat?

    37 Which of these would be best to use when transferring 0.01 mL of a solution to a test tube?
    A Pipette without volume indicators
    B 1 mL pipette in 0.5 mL increments
    C 10 mL pipette in 10 mL increments
    D 0.1 mL pipette in 0.01 mL increments

    38 The HIV retrovirus causes a disease in people because it --
    F produces an exotoxin
    G destroys white blood cells
    H stimulates the growth of immature cells
    J causes the loss of plasma nutrients
    39 Which of these is NOT an inherited trait?
    A Eye color
    B Tendency to grow hair on fingers
    C Type of blood
    D Style of handwriting

    Number of Nesting Pairs in a Purple Martin Colony
    Week Number of Nesting Pairs
    0 5
    1 9
    2 12
    3 14
    4 ??
    40 If this trend continues, how many nesting pairs of purple martins will there be in the colony by the end of the fourth week?
    F 15
    G 16
    H 17
    J 18

       A slightly limp celery stalk in a beaker of water A limp celery stalk in a beaker of water A very limp celery stalk in a beaker of water A rigid celery stalk in a beaker of water

    41 Turgor is the internal cytoplasmic pressure that results from the amount of water absorbed by plant cells. The picture shows a turgor pressure demonstration using stalks of celery in different salt solutions. Which of these shows the celery stalks in order from the one with the most turgor pressure to the one with the least turgor pressure?
    A Q, T, S, R
    B R, S, T, Q
    C S, R, T, Q
    D T, Q, R, S

    42 In order to develop safe products, designers of scuba diving equipment must be aware of the needs of the circulatory system and the —
    F digestive system
    G respiratory system
    H lymphatic system
    J endocrine system

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