King Saud University
  Help (new window)
Search


Guidelines_English_Final
تحميل الدليل التدريبي

أسئلة شائعة


 

COURSE NUMBER  : CHS 231

COURSE TITLE  :  INFECTIOUS DISEASES

CREDIT HOURS  : 2 + 0  = 2

PREREQUSITES  : NON

COURSE INSTRUCTOR : ABDALLA A.WAHID SAEED.

                                             TEL 4355010  EXT 504

                                              e-mail  asaeed@ksu.edu.sa        

                                                         <asaeed1946@hotmail.com>

COURSE DESCRIPTION :

Common and important infectious diseases nation and

world-wide will be presented and discussed focussing on the

whole spectrum of the disease concerned such as causative

agent, reservoir hosts, transmission , incubation period,

major clinical features, principles of management with

emphasis on prevention and control measures .

COURSE OBJECTIVES :

The student is expected at the end of the course to be able to :

1. Discuss the importance of infectious diseases in the community.

2. Outline and discuss the interaction between infectious diseases and man and his environment.

3. Outline and discuss the components of infectious diseases epidemiology.

4. Discuss the principles of surveillance, investigation, eradication and control of infectious diseases in the community.

4. Know the major infectious diseases and their control programmes in the Kingdom.

 

                                           CHS 231    Infectious Diseases

Topical  weekly Outlines : Two Hours Weekly

WEEK                     T O P I C

1 & 2                         Introduction

                                  Definition of relevant terms

                                  Classification of infectious diseases

                                  Epidemiology of infectious diseases

                                  Principles of Eradication , Prevention and Control of Infectious 

                                  Diseases

                                  Infectious diseases rules and regulations.

 

3                                Parasitic Diseases

                                   Intestinal Protozoa ( Amoeba , Giardia )

 

4                                                                                                                                        Intestinal Helminths ( Ascaris, Hookworm 

5                                                                                                                                        ,Teaniasis  -Tapeworms – Human , Dog)

 

6                                                                                                                                        Extra Intestinal Protozoa ( Malaria , 

                                   Leishmania , )

                                  Extra Intestinal Helminths ( Schistosomiasis )

 

6                            TEST 1  ( 20 points )

 

7                                 Bacterial Diseases

                                  Cholera , Typhoid , Shigellosis

 

8                                Tuberculosis , Leprosy, Relapsing Fever

 

9                                Brucellosis , Meningitis , Plague

 

10                          TEST 2   ( 20 points )

 

11                           Viral Diseases

                               Small pox and its eradication   AIDS.

 

12                           Yellow Fever  , Rabies , Avian Flu , Rift Valley Fever

 

13                            Viral Hepatitis ( A , B, C, D, E )

 

14                          TEST 3  ( 20 POINTS )

 

15                             Epidemiology of Vector Borne Diseases

                                  Infectious Diseases and International

                                  Health Regulations.

 

TEACHING METHODS :

 

Lectures , group discussion , assignments

 

EVALUATION :

 

Three semester examinations, 20 points each (Total 60 )

One Final written Exam   ( 40 points )

 

COURSE TEXT BOOK :

 

Chin, James  ( Editor )  2000 . Control of communicable diseases Manual . 17th Edition , APHA Publication , Washington D.C.,USA

 

OTHER REFERENCES :

 

1.Christie A . 1990 Infectious Diseases : Clinical and Epidemiologic Practice , Churchill Livingstone , UK.

2- Handouts

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EXAMPLES OF EXAM  QUESTIONS :

 

Q.1. CIRCLE THE CORRECT ANSWER          

.1.  IN BRUCELLOSIS.

a- non of the below

b-relapses  do not occur

c-men and women are equally affected

d-immunization is effective in animals.

e-person to person transmission is common.

2.  IN CHOLERA:

a- treatment is by tetracycline              

 b-incubation period is usually more than one week

 c- achlorohydria decreases risk of disease.

 d-vaccination is the best way of control.

e- non of the above.

3. IN  YELLOW FEVER:

Saudi Arabia is a receptive area          b- the disease is not endemic in  Europe

c-isolation of patients is not necessary for control

d- the disease is vector borne                 e- all of the above

4. ..IN RABIES:

disease can not be transmitted from man to man

disease is usually fatal in humans but not in animals

wound infection is the commonest cause of death

duck embryo vaccine gives less immunity            e-   all of the   them

5. MAXIMUM INFECTIVITY IS DURING THE INCUBATION PERIOD OF VIRAL HEPATITIS :

a                    b- b                     c- c                        d-  d                           e- e

 

IN INTESTINAL PROTOZOA :

usually symptomatic

diagnosis is by the characteristic symptoms

infection is by ingestion of the cyst

all of the above          (e)   non of the above

     

7-  IN TAENIASIS  OF HUMANS :

the larval stage in more serious in saginata

the larval stage do not occur in solium

the intermediate host is the dog

transmission to humans is only by ingestion of eggs

non of the above

8 -  SCHISTOSOMIASIS :

can affect animals

can be transmitted directly

is vector borne

all of the above

non of the above

 

 

 

Q.2CIRCLE “T” IF STATEMENT IS TRUE    CIRCLE “F” IF STATEMENT IS FALSE         

      

1.    t     f    relapsing fever can occur in developed countries

 

2    t     e   multiple antibiotics are used in leprosy, tuberculosis, and brucellosis

 

3   t     e   vaccination  against yellow fever can prevent cancer of the liver

 

4    t     f   isolation is useless in diseases with indirect transmission

 

Hydatid disease in man:

(a)                    t.  f.      more common in cities than villages

(b)                    t.  f.                  diagnosis is by recovering the agent in blood.

(c)                    t.  f.                  can be eradicated by treatment of infected humans.

(d)                    t.  f.                  mebendazol is a curative drug.

(e)                    t.  f.                  disease can affect all organs of the body

 

 

  

 

                       DEPT. OF COMMUNITY HEALTH SCIENCES

                                          FEMALES       

COURSE NUMBER :  CHS  241

COURSE TITLE  :  HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONS AND SYSTEMS.

CREDIT HOURS  :  3 + 0  =  3

PREREQUISITES :  NONE

COURSE INSTRUCTOR : Dr.  Abdalla  Abdel Wahid Saeed

OFFICE                 : ROOM NO.1A16  TEL   4355010   EXT 504

e-mail                     : asaeed@37.com      abdsaeed@medu.net.sa

 

COURSE  OBJECTIVE  :                        

            To acquaint the student with a broad range of basic health and health related sciences and the range of career opportunities in the health field as well as an understanding of the health care systems and organization .

 

COURSE DESCRIPTION  :

            A summary of health care programs and opportunities in the health field and the characteristics ,roles , responsibilities and relationships between and among health professions . Basic Health Science Terminology, and fundamentals of Epidemiology will be presented along with Introduction to the organization and structure of the governmental and private health sectors in terms of their planning, functions responsibilities , constraints and operations .

 

Specific Course Objectives :

 

1. Define health and discuss determinants and indicators of health status

 

2. Discuss the different aspects of Environment family and their role in the causation and solution of health and health related problems .

3. Define the levels of health care and discuss the concept and rationale of the primary health care program in the Kingdom.

 

4.Define Health Team and Health Professions and discuss their characteristics careers , roles and problems .

 

5.Outline the different types of National Health Systems and discuss their determinants, understand the basic Organization and Management Models in Health Facilities.

 

6.Understand and use the basic health science terminology

 

7.Understand the role of the International Health and Health Related Organizations .

 

8.Understand , discuss and use Epidemiologic Methods in the study and solution of health and health related problems.

 

 

 

 

                                                  TOPICAL  OUTLINE :

 

SERIAL                      T O P I C

 

1                                 Introduction

                                   Definitions of health

                                   Determinants of health status

                                   Sociological aspects of health

2                                 Health Professions / Health careers

                                   Health Team

3                                 Health Indicators

4                                 Health Science Terminology

5                                 Levels of health care / levels of prevention

                                   Primary Health Care : concept and programmes

                                   International Health Organizations

6                                 Health Systems Analysis.

7                                 Health System in the Kingdom                              

8                                      Comparative Health Systems

9                                      Definition and uses of Epidemiology

                                   Descriptive and Experimental Epidemiology

10                               Analytic Epidemiology.

                                   Ecological, cross-sectional studies

11    , 12                        Retrospective , prospective studies

13                                 Screening Programmes

14                              Infectious Diseases Epidemiology

15                              Non infectious diseases epidemiology

16                              REVISION

 

TEACHING METHODS :

Formal lectures  with active student participation

EVALUATION : Three Semester Tests

TEST 1       20 %      TEST 2     20 %     TEST  20%   FINAL   40 %

COURSE TEXT BOOKS :

1.Smolensky J. Principles of Community Health . W.B. Saunders

Company , Philadelphia , 2001.

2. Mausner and Kramer . Epidemiology : Introductory Text

   W.B. Saunders Company , Philadelphia 1990.

3. Medical Terminology : a self-learning module

   by: Jacqueline Joseph Birmingham

   Mcgraw -Hill Book Company , 1991.

4.Other References :      Handouts

MID TERM TEST 1

MID TERM TEST 2

MID TERM TEST 3

 

 

READ  THE FOLLOWING  CAREFULLY :

 

PLEASE  TAKE COURSE SERIOUSLY , ATTEND ALL LECTURES AND  EXAMS- NO RETAKE EXAMS- NO DOUBLING OF GRADES- NO ADDITIONAL ASSIGNMENTS OR QUIZZES TO IMPROVE GRADES.

EXAMS WILL BE SOLVED AT END OF EXAM. PERIOD, YOU SHOULD ATTEND TO KNOW THE CORRECT ANSWERS WHICH WILL NOT BE DISCUSSED WITH INDIVIDUAL STUDENTS GRADES WILL BE DISTRIBUTED TO STUDENTS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE FOLLOWING LECTURE.NO STUDENT WILL BE ALLOWED TO REVIEW HIS PAPER INDIVIDUALLY THE TEACHER IS READY TO REVISE STUDENTS ANSWER PAPER  TO CORRECT ANY MISTAKES.  STUDENT HAS TO FILE A COMPLAINT IF  NOT CONVINCED AFTER THE REVISION . QUESTIONS WILL NOT BE ANSWERED FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENTS . THIS WILL ONLY  BE FOR ALL STUDENTS IN THE CLASS AT THE SAME TIME , USUALLY IMMEDIATELY AFTER EXAM.

 

 

SAMPLE OF EXAM QUESTIONS

An epidemiological study was done to know whether smoking is the cause of lung cancer. a researcher selected  a healthy cohort of  200 persons  60  cigarettes smokers  he found that the disease occurred in 20 persons  half of them  non smokers .

 

 In another study the researcher selected 67 cases of lung and cancer and 67 healthy persons   and he found that  52 of the total sample were smokers  and 12 of them have no lung cancer.

 

Q.1. calculate all risks, rates, indicators you can calculate from the above data.

 

Q.2. what is the :

relative risk

odds ratio

attributable risk

 

Q.3. is smoking the cause for lung cancer ? explain YOUR ANSWER

Q.4. what are the types of these studies?

 

Q.5. put the above data in a table form.

disease

factor

 

 

 

 

present

absent

total

 

present

 

 

a

 

b

 

a  +  b

 

 

absent

 

 

c

 

 

 

d

 

 

 

c  + d

 

total

 

 

a + c

 

b  + d

 

a+b+c+d

                                               disease

factor

 

 

 

 

present

absent

total

 

present

 

 

a

 

b

 

a  +  b

 

 

absent

 

 

c

 

 

 

d

 

 

 

c  + d

 

total

 

 

a + c

 

b  + d

 

a+b+c+d

1-Berkson’s bias :

a-  is spurious association

b-  can result from different illness perception and behaviour

c-results  from different admission rates to hospitals

d-  all of the above           e-  non of the above

2-Neyman’s bias :

a-  is spurious association

b-  can result from different illness perception and behaviour

c- results  from different admission rates to hospitals

d-  all of the above           e-  non of the above

3.In case control studies  ;

a- cases are representative of all cases

b- control are representative of all healthy persons

c- both  a   and    b 

d-disease should be of high prevalence        e- the cost is very high

4- Ecological studies are  :

 a- population  based           b- cheap          c- quick        d- easy          e- all of them

5-In  descriptive epidemiology:

a- morbidity and mortality is more in males        b-   morbidity is more in males

  c-  mortality and morbidity is more in females 

d- mortality is more in females          

 e-  mortality is more in males

6-.The  following organization deals mostly with occupational health:

A- W.H.O           B- UNESCO              C-  ILO              D-  FAO            E- UNICEF

7.Tthe present five years health plan in the kingdom is the :

a-  third           b- fifth             c- eighth                d-  sixth            e- non of them

8. The following is  a component of a system  except :

a- inputs          b- process           c-  outcome            d-  output       e- non of them

9. Primary health care :

        a-   can be in hospital                   b-  is cheaper than tertiary care

c-is comprehensive care        d- is team work           e- all of the above

10. The P.H. C . care strategies in the kingdom concentrate on :

a- health education             b-co-ordination             c- at risk approach

d- motivation of consumers                        - e- non of the above

11- The state of optimal physical, mental  and social health is the :   

a-   W.HO. definition             b- operational definition           c- kingdom definition

d- united nations definition               e- non of them      

12.Expenditure on health in the kingdom is :

a. mostly on PHC                 b. more  than  600 us$                       c. about 8% of GNP   

d. all of them                     e-non of them

 

 

                                    CHS  334   EPIDEMIOLOGY 1

                                      PRINCIPLES OF EPIDEMIOLOGY

                              

COURSE  INSTRUCTOR :  DR. ABDALLA  A.WAHID  SAEED     EXT  504

                                          e-mail : <asaeed@ksu.edu.sa>

 

COURSE  DESCRIPTION :

 

EPIDEMIOLOGY IS  A SCIENCE CONCERNED WITH THE PATTERNS OF DISEASE OCCURRENCE AND THE FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE  THESE PATTERNS.

EPIDEMIOLOGIC METHODS WILL BE PRESENTED EMPHASIZING DISTRIBUTION OF HEALTH AND DISEASE AMONG POPULATIONS ACCORDING TO WHO, WHERE AND WHEB PARAMETERS.  RISK AND AETIOLOGICAL FACTORS WILL BE DERIVED THROUGH EXPERIMENTAL AND ANALYTIC METHODOLOGY IN PREPARATION FOR PREVENTIVE AND CONTROL STRATEGIES.

 

AT THE EDND OF THE COURSE THE STUDENT IS EXPECTED TO KNOW AND APPLY :

1.      DESCRITIVE AND CROSS-SECTIONAL  METHODS

2.      CALACULATE AND STANDARDIZE MORBIDITY AND 

            MORTALITY RATES

3.      ANALYTIC EPIDEMIOLOGIC METHODS

4.      EXPERIMENTAL EPIDEMIOLOGIC METHODS

5.      INVESTIGATION OF EPIDEMICS

6.      PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF DISEASES

7.      PRINCIPLES OF SCREENING PROGRAMS

 

COURSE EVALUATION:
SEMESTER EXAMS (20% EACH)                           40 POINTS

FIELD ASSIGNMENT AND REPRT                        20 POINTS

FINAL WRITTEN EXAM                                          40 POINTS

 

COURSE  TEXTBOOK:

REQUIRED  READING  :   COURSE HANDOUTS

OTHER REFENCES :

1-MAUSNER AND KRAMER:

EPIDEMIOLOGY-  INTRODUCTORY  TEXT

2-CHARLES ANOKUTE :

EPIDEMIOLOGY FOR  THE APPLIED MEDICAL SCIENCES

3-LEON GORDIS:  EPIDEMIOLOGY

 

MID TERM TEST 1 : MONDAY  . 1428H  ( .2007)

 

MID TERM TEST 2 : MONDAY  .1428H  ( .2007)

 

FIELD ASSIGMENT :

 

 

CHS  334  : EPIDEMIOLGY 1 FIRST  SEMESTER 1427/ 1428H

 

                                      WEEKLY   TOPICAL OUTLINES

 

WEEK ( DATE )                        T   O   P   I    C                                    

 

1 &  2      COURSE PRSENTATION                               

                INTRODUCTION TO EPIDEMIOLOGICAL

                STUDIES  AND USES  

2,3 .        MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY RATES    

               STANDARDIZATION OF CRUDE RATES   

               

4.             DESCRIPTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGY                 

 

5.               INTERVENTIONAL EPIDEMIOLOGY       

 

 

6.   FIRST MID TERM TEST  ( 20 POINTS)

 

7         EPIDEMIOLOGY OF DISEASES                       

 

8         INVESTIGATION OF EPIDEMICS                   

 

9.    SCREENING PROGRAMS                                     

 

10.  SECOND MID TERM TEST ( 20 POINTS)         

 

11.     ANALYTIC EPIDEMIOLGY:

                                 CROSS SECTIONAL  STUDIES                          

 

12. RETROSPECTIVE STUDIES                                

 

13.     PROSPECTIVE STUDIES                                       

 

14.  FIELD ASSIGNMENT PRESENTATION ( 20 POINTS)

 

 

15                           GENERAL   REVISION                                          

                 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                 

SAMPLES OF EXAM QUESTIONS

Q.1.  in a certain area the total population was  180 000 .the total live births were  7560. the crude death rate was 19/1000. deaths in children less than one year of age were 378. women aged 15 – 49 years were  42% of the total population. new cases of disease  x were 45 and women who died from pregnancy were 14. total number of cases of disease x in the year 1422h were 396. the exposed persons to disease x were 25% of the total population. four persons who died from disease x in the year 1422h.. number of cases which were present at the end of Rajab 1422h were 216.

 

Calculate as many indicators , rates as you can  from the above data

 

Q.2

 

 

  Swedish city

 

 

Indian

City

 

 

Age

population

death rate

population

 death rate

< 25

35 000

1

 

50 000

2

25 – 44

30 000

2

 

25 000

3

45 – 64

25 000

10

 

20 000

15

65 +

10 000

100

 

5 000

150

Total

100 000

 

 

100 000

 

 

standardization of crude rates :

 

population

age in years

Number

deaths

population a

less than 15

1500

3

15  -  44

2000

12

45 +

1500

30

 

 

 

 

 

population

age in years

number

deaths

population b

less than 15

2000

4

15  -  44

2500

15

45 +

500

10

 

 

 

 

Q.2.CALCULATE :

1-        crude death rates  in each population

2-        calculate the standardized crude death rate in each population

 

 

Q.3- A- study for lung cancer and cigarettes smoking was done on a healthy cohort of  320 persons, 50%  of them  were  not smokers. lung cancer was found 34 persons and 2 of them were not smokers  .

 

B- in a certain area a prospective study for lung cancer and cigarette smoking was done on a cohort of 1000 persons, 600 of them not smoking. lung cancer was found in 200 persons and 120 of them were smokers.

 

 

C-- in  a certain area lung cancer  has an annual incidence of 0.15  among doctors. a researcher wanted to study the relation of the disease with cigarettes smoking. he identified 800 doctor born in year 1362h and studied their smoking habits since birth and those who developed lung cancer till year 1421h.  he found that 300 were smokers. the disease occurred in 100 doctor s and 30 of them were not smokers.

 

Q.3

3.1 calculate all risks, rates, indicators you can calculate from the above  studies

3.2. is smoking the cause for lung cancer ? explain

3.3. what are the types of these studies?

 

Q.4

persons who ate specified food            persons who did not                                                

                                                                  eat specified  food

---------------------------------------------------------

food             ill         well             iii      well

meat            90           19              15        91    

rice              16           84              35        75

chicken       124          24              24        96

soup            54           56               6        94

milk              6            6                6        6

---------------------------------------------------------

sweet        65           75                3        15

---------------------------------------------------------

study the table  above , which shows data from a food poisoning episode

 

4 1. calculate attack rates for the different food items.

4.2. what is the most likely incriminated food item? explain why?

4.3. why some of those who ate this incriminated food are not ill?

4.4. why some of those who did not eat this incriminated food are  ill?

 

             

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Q.5.  a new screening test for  diabetes mellitus  was evaluated in 1000 persons , 20%  of them were patients. the test was positive in 260 persons , and was negative in 20 patients .                             

                                                         disease

result of test

 

 

 

 

present

absent

total

 

positive

 

 

A

 

b

 

a  +  b

 

 

negative

 

 

c

 

 

 

d

 

 

 

c  + d

 

total

 

 

a + c

 

b  + d

 

a+b+c+d

 5.1-sensitivity          5.2- specificity

5.3- f.p                  5.4-% f.n       5.5- accuracy          

5.6- predictive +ve     5.7- predictive -ve   

 

5.8- what is the yield if test is used for screening program in an area where the prevalence of the disease is  5 %

 

5.9- would you recommend the use of this test for screening program ?  why ?

 

Q.6.

a new screening test for diabetes mellitus  was evaluated in  400  persons 200 of them were healthy . the test was positive  in 170  patients and was positive in 30 healthy persons

 

 

6.1.calculate as many indicators , rates as you can .

 

6.2. what is the yield if this test was done in an area where the prevalence of the  disease is 25% ?

 

6.3 if a second screening test was done on all those who tested positive in the first test and this second test was positive in 170 persons and discovered correctly 90%  of the healthy persons.

 

6.4

put the above data in table form and then calculate as many indicators rates as you can

 

 

                   COLLEGE OF APPLIED MEDICAL SCIENCES-

                   DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY HEALTH SCIENCES

COURSE  TITLE :  CHS  433  MATERNAL & CHILD CARE

PREREQUISITES :  NON

COURSE DESCRIPTION :

COURSE INSTRUCTOR : DR. ABDALLA A.WAHID . EXT 504   

                                                                                        asaeed@37.COM

The focus of the course is on the importance of mother and child and how they affect and be affected by family and community health heath status. Anatomy and physiology of reproduction, pregnancy, ante, intra and postnatal and child care principles and approaches will presented.

COURSE OBJECTIVES:

AT THE  SUCCESSFUL COMPLETION OF THE COURSE THE STUDENT IS EXPECTED TO BE ABLE TO :

1-DISCUSS THE IMPORTANCE OF MATERNAL AND CHILD SERVICES AND HIGHLIGHT THEIR SOCIOLOGICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS

2- KNOW THE BASIC ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLGY AND PATHOLGY OF REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS, PREGNANCY, DELIVERY AND  PUERPERIUM. 3- OUTLINE THE PRINCIPLES , COMPONENTS OF MCH SERVICES IN THE KINGDOMINCLUDING NUTRITIONAL ASPECTS .

4-      DISCUSS THE IMPORTANCE AND USES OF MCH INDICATORS –

5-      OUTLINE THE COMPONENTS OF CHILD HEALTH SERVICES   

                                                  TOPICAL WEEKLY OUTLINE

1-      INTRODUCTION – GLOSSARY OF MEDICAL TERMS- MCH INDICATORS

2-      ANATOMY OF FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS

3-      PHYSIOLOGY OF  FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS

4        & 5  CONCEPTION     AND  FOETAL DEVELOPMENT

6- COMPLICATIONS OF EARLY PREGANCY

7- PHYSIOLOGY OF NORMAL PREGNANCY

8- ANTENATAL CARE

9-      HEALTH COMPLICATIONS DURING PREGNANCY

10-  PHYSIOLOGY OF LABOUR

11-  ASSISTED LABOUR

12-  POSTNATAL CARE OF MOTHER AND CHILD

13-  THE NORMAL NEWBORN BABY

14-  PHYSIOLOGY OF PUERPERIUM

15-  CHILD GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

16-  FAMILY PLANNING

STUDENT EVALUATION :

1-      TWO SEMETER TEST  ( 20 % EAH)

2-      ONE WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT ON ONE ASPECT OF MATENAL AND CHILD NUTRITION(10%)

3-      FINAL EXAM ( 50%)

TEXTBOOKS :

1-MATERNITY CARE   BY : HEELEN FARRER , CHURCHILL LIVINGSTONE – LATEST EDITION

 

 

SAMPLES OF EXAM QUESTIONS :

Q.1.WRITE SHORT NOTES ON :

1.1.methods of calculation of expected date of delivery

1.2.changes in the cardiovascular system during pregnancy

1.3.first antenatal visit

1.4.twin pregnancy

1.5. immediate post natal care for mother and child

1.6. assisted labour              

 1.7.maternal nutritional requirements during pregnancy and lactation

1.8. contraceptive methods

 

Q.2.  CIRCLE THE CORRECT ANSWER :

 

2.1. THE ADULT HUMAN UTERUS :

A.     weighs 1500 grams at term 

B.     weighs  100  grams  without pregnancy 

C.     weighs one kilogram at  20 weeks of  pregnancy

D.     all of the above

E.     non of the above

2.2   THE  LIGHTEST WEIGHT DURING PREGNANCY IS FOR THE :

A.     uterus growth

B.     amniotic fluid

C.     blood and fluid volume

D.     placenta

E.     breasts

2.3   IF THE EXPECTED DATE OF DELIVERY IS  24. 7. 1426H, THE LNMP IS EXPECTED TO HAVE BEEN ON :

A.                 17.10. 425h

B.                 1.5.1425h

C.                 1.10.1425h

D.                 17.5.1425h

E.                 non of the above

2.4.  ACCORDING TO   W.H.O. THE FOETUS IS VIABLE IF IT IS :

A.                      over 20 weeks of gestation

B.                      22 cm in length

C.                      more than 350 grams of weight

D.                      any of the above

E.                      non of the above

 

2.5 DURING LABOUR :

            a- the cervix is dilated

            b- the bowel is compressed

            c- the bladder is pulled up

            d- all of the above

            e- non of the above.

2.6 IN SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES DURING PREGNANCY :

A-           Congenital syphilis can affect the baby

B-           congenital gonorrhea affects the baby

C-           herpes virus affects foetus

D-           all of the above

E-            non of the bove

 

Q.3. COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING TABLE FOR THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE : 

UTERUS

PITUITARY GLAND

OVARY

eondometrial growth and secretion

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

level of oestrogen stimulates     f s h

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

development of corpus luteum

shed of functional layer

 

 

 

 

 

 

Q.4.  CIRCLE    T     FOR    TRUE   OR      F       FOR     FALSE     STATEMENTS:

                                        

4.1.      t        f        fertilization  of ovum usually occurs  in uterine

                                 end of uterine tube

4.2.      t        f        amenorrhea can be a symptom or sign of pregnancy

4.3.      t        f         a negative pregnancy test can definitely excludes

                                  pregnancy

4.4.      t        f          at 12 weeks of gestation the fundus is at umbilicus

4.5.      t        f          ectoderm forms at four weeks  of pregnancy

4..6.      t        f           children under 15 years of age constitute about

                                    half the population in the kingdom

4.7.     t         f            ultrasound can detect pregnancy as early as

                                     3 weeks of pregnancy

4.8.     t        f             the usual increase in weight during the whole

                                     pregnancy is about  11  kilograms

 

 

 

About Entrez

Text Version

Entrez PubMed
Overview
Help | FAQ
Tutorials
New/Noteworthy  
E-Utilities

PubMed Services
Journals Database
MeSH Database
Single Citation Matcher
Batch Citation Matcher
Clinical Queries
Special Queries
LinkOut
My NCBI

Related Resources
Order Documents
NLM Mobile
NLM Catalog
NLM Gateway
TOXNET
Consumer Health
Clinical Alerts
ClinicalTrials.gov
PubMed Central
 Display  Summary Brief Abstract AbstractPlus Citation MEDLINE XML UI List LinkOut ASN.1 Related Articles Cited Articles Cited in Books CancerChrom Links Domain Links 3D Domain Links GEO DataSet Links Gene Links Gene (GeneRIF) Links Genome Links Project Links GENSAT Links GEO Profile Links HomoloGene Links Nucleotide Links Nucleotide (RefSeq) Links OMIA Links OMIM (calculated) Links OMIM (cited) Links BioAssay Links Compound Links Compound via MeSH Substance Links Substance via MeSH PMC Links Cited in PMC PopSet Links Probe Links Protein Links Protein (RefSeq) Links SNP Links Structure Links Taxonomy via GenBank UniGene Links UniSTS Links Show  5 10 20 50 100 200 500 Sort by Pub Date First Author Last Author Journal Send to Text File Printer Clipboard E-mail Order
All: 18 
Review: 0 
Items 1 - 18 of 18
One page.
1: Saudi Med J. 2005 Jun;26(6):1030-2. Related Articles, Links

Consumer satisfaction with primary health care services in Hail City, Saudi Arabia.

Abdalla AM, Saeed AA, Magzoub M, Reerink E.

Department of Preventive Medicine, North West Armed Forces Hospital Programme, PO Box 100, Tabuk, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Tel. +966 (4) 4411088 ext. 82442. E-mail: Abdallaali63@hotmail.com.

PMID: 15983707 [PubMed - in process]

2: J R Soc Health. 2003 Jun;123(2):105-9. Related Articles, Links

Factors influencing patient choice of hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

al-Doghaither AH, Abdelrhman BM, Saeed AA, Magzoub ME.

College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, PO Box 1029, Riyadh 11433, Saudi Arabia.

This study examined factors considered important in choosing a hospital. The sample consisted of 303 respondents selected from five randomly selected primary health care centres. The percentages of males, highly educated, high-income level, elder and private sector employees was higher in those choosing private sector hospitals, while marital status did not relate to type of hospital. The principal component analysis identified six factors accounting for 64% of the total variance. The most important component was 'medical services' accounting for 28% of the total variance. Stepwise discriminant analysis revealed that the main factors associated with choosing a hospital were medical services, accessibility, age, sex and education. Little importance was given to income and occupation. Future recommendations outline the need for consumers' perceptions, attitudes, suggestions and concerns to be taken into consideration when marketing the services to be provided.

PMID: 12852195 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

3: Public Health Nutr. 2002 Dec;5(6):727-31. Related Articles, Links
Click here to read 
Diarrhoea and child feeding practices in Saudi Arabia.

Bani IA, Saeed AA, Othman AA.

Department of Community Health Sciences, Applied Medical College, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. banii@un.org

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of diarrhoea in children less than two years old and study the relationship between diarrhoeal episodes and action taken for these episodes by their mothers. DESIGN: The prevalence of diarrhoeal episodes among children and its associations with sociodemographic information and anthropometric measurements of the subjects was examined. Predictive factors for morbidity-associated diarrhoeal disease and actions taken for this were explored. SETTING: Primary health care centres (PHCCs) in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. SUBJECTS: Children less than two years of age. RESULTS: Nearly a quarter of the children contracted diarrhoea during the two weeks preceding the data collection point, giving about six episodes of diarrhoea per child per year. Diarrhoea was more common in children over 6 months of age, in children who had no vaccination or follow-up cards, and in those who were taken care of by friends and neighbours if their mothers were working outside the home. The mothers of the affected children were young, married before 25 years of age with 2-6 years of formal schooling. During diarrhoeal episodes, about 25% of mothers stopped or decreased breast-feeding, 11.3% reduced the volume of fluids given to their children, and 22.7% of children were fed less solid/semi-solid foods. Mothers used oral rehydration salt in more than 40% of diarrhoeal episodes and unprescribed antibiotics were used in 17% of cases. The mothers who were not taking appropriate action included young mothers with low education level and those working outside the home. CONCLUSION: Diarrhoea is common in children less than two years old in Riyadh City, and intervention based in PHCCs needs to be undertaken to correct the faulty practices of mothers during diarrhoeal episodes in their children. Health education messages should emphasise feeding during diarrhoeal episodes.

PMID: 12570881 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

4: Saudi Med J. 2002 Oct;23(10):1237-42. Related Articles, Links

Patients' perspective on factors affecting utilization of primary health care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Saeed AA, Mohamed BA.

Department of Community Health Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, PO Box 10219, Riyadh 11433, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Tel. +966 (1) 4355392/4355010. Ext. 504. Fax. +966 (1) 4355883. E-mail: asaeed@ksu.edu.sa

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to assess factors which the patients think can encourage, discourage or have no effect on utilization of Primary Health Care Centers (PHCCs) in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. METHODS: Patients (n=540) attending the selected PHCCs in Riyadh were asked regarding their views on 21 (factors) items and whether they can encourage, discourage or has no effect on utilization of PHCCs services. Eight PHCCs were randomly selected according to the geographical location, 2 from each geographical zone. Seventy-five subjects were selected systematically, every 10th Saudi aged 15 years and above who visited the selected PHCCs during a one-month period (September 1998). The data was collected via a self administered pilot tested, internally consistent questionnaire which included patients' sociodemographic characteristics and their response to the 21 items rated as highly encouraging, encouraging, has no effect or discouraging utilization of offered health services. RESULTS: More than 60% of the patients were males, aged 15-39 years, 47% finished secondary school, 5.2% were illiterate, 58% of all patients were married, more than 60% were employees and approximately 60% have a monthly income of less than 4500 Saudi Riyals. Manpower factors particularly the physician, Arabic speaking health team and free service were the most encouraging factors, while overcrowding and geographical location of the PHCCs, particularly location near public services, were the least encouraging factors. Patients' gender, education and occupation were the most important and age was the least important patients' characteristics associated with utilization factors. CONCLUSION: An experienced physician, Moslem physicians and an Arabic speaking health team offering free service in PHCCs located near patients' homes can augment utilization of services.

PMID: 12436129 [PubMed - in process]

5: Saudi Med J. 2002 Aug;23(8):909-14. Related Articles, Links

Mothers' practices during pregnancy, lactation and care of their children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Al-Othman AM, Saeed AA, Bani IA, Al-Murshed KS.

Department of Community Health Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, PO Box 10219, Riyadh 11433, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Tel. +966 (1) 4355392/4355010. Fax. +966 (1) 4355883. E-mail: asaeed@ksu.edu.sa or amothman@ksu.edu.sa

OBJECTIVE: To study mothers' practices during pregnancy, lactation and care during the first 2 years. METHODS: A cross section study was carried out in 5 Primary Health Care Centres (PHCC) in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Two hundred and fifty women (50 from each PHCC) who have children less than 2-years of age who visited the selected PHCCs during the study period were selected by systematic random sampling. Data was collected via a questionnaire which contained sociodemographic characteristics of the mother and their children and mothers' practices during pregnancy, lactation and the care of their children. RESULTS: Approximately 73% of the mothers breast fed their children initially but only 37.6% are currently breast feeding their children. The majority of the mothers started breast feeding during 1-8 hours after delivery, 63% added supplementary foods to their children at 4-8 months. The majority of mothers visited antenatal clinics during pregnancy, vaccinated their children and followed up their children in well baby clinics. Half of the mothers are currently using contraceptives and 19% are consuming less food during pregnancy. The mothers' educational level was the most important factor associated with mothers' practices. CONCLUSION: Some mothers' practices during pregnancy, lactation and child care needs corrective intervention.

PMID: 12235461 [PubMed - in process]

6: Saudi Med J. 2000 May;21(5):447-54. Related Articles, Links

Consumers' satisfaction with primary health services in the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Al-Doghaither AH, Saeed AA.

Department of Community Health Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, PO Box 10219, Riyadh 11433, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

OBJECTIVE: To study consumers' satisfaction and socio-demographic correlates of satisfaction with services provided by Primary Health Care Centres in the city of Jeddah. METHODS: Study subjects included the consumers visiting the Primary Health Care Centres during the study period. Four Primary Health Care Centres were randomly selected from Jeddah according to the geographical location. Seventy five subjects were selected systematically where every tenth Saudi aged 15 years or above was chosen. Data was collected via a self administered pilot tested questionnaire which included socio-demographic characteristics, as well as the overall and differential satisfaction with the different services and facilities in the selected Primary Health Care Centres rated on a scale of 1 - 5 points, the higher the score the higher the satisfaction. RESULTS: Male subjects constituted 60% of the visitors. More than half of the subjects were young 15-29 years of age, about 58% were married, 50% completed intermediate/secondary school, more than two fifths of the subjects were employees and more than three quarters have a monthly income of 6000 Saudi Riyals or less. The summary satisfaction score was 3.76 points and the overall satisfaction with the services provided was 2.45 points out of a maximum of 5 points. The highest satisfaction was for dental clinic (3.44 points) and the lowest for co- operation of the receptionist (1.95 point). Unskilled laborers showed the highest summary and overall satisfaction (4.31 and 2.71 points) and students showed the lowest satisfaction scores (3.54 and 1.89 points). Other socio-demographic variables were not significantly related to summary and overall satisfaction scores. CONCLUSION: Measuring satisfaction by asking one summary question tends to give a significantly higher satisfaction score compared to satisfaction score taking in consideration of all services offered. Certain service components need corrective intervention measures to make them more satisfactory to consumers.

PMID: 11500679 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

7: Saudi Med J. 2000 Dec;21(12):1152-6. Related Articles, Links

Prevalence and correlates of acute respiratory infections in children less than two years of age.

Saeed AA, Bani IA.

Department of Community Health Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, PO Box 10219, Riyadh 11433, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. asaeed@ksu.edu.sa

OBJECTIVEs: To study acute respiratory infections of children less than 2 years of age in Riyadh City and their sociodemographic and anthropometric correlates. METHODS: Study subjects included 250 mothers selected by systematic random sampling from mothers attending 5 Primary Health Care Centers selected by simple random sampling from the 5 geographical zones (one from each zone) in Riyadh during a one month period. Data was collected via a structured pilot tested modified questionnaire filled in by trained research assistants who interviewed mothers regarding acute respiratory infections during the past 2 weeks in their children aged less than 2 years. Heights and weights of both children and mothers were measured and the necessary sociodemographic characteristics of the mothers, and children were collected by the research assistants in addition to mothers' practices concerning their child's acute respiratory infections. RESULTS: The prevalence of acute respiratory infection in children was 24%, mostly in children whose mothers are less educated, aged 35 years or more, married at age 25 years or more and whose relatives take care of their children while working outside the home. The children affected were mostly 7 - 12 months of age, lighter in weight, not vaccinated, with no follow up cards and not weighed during the last 4 months. About 3 quarters of the mothers consulted somebody about acute respiratory infections, mostly at modern health facilities particularly government Primary Health Care Centers. Tachypnea, or diarrhea or both were the most important symptoms urging mothers to seek medical advice. Working mothers whose children are taken care of by relatives is the only significant predictor of acute respiratory infections, and children with a follow up card is the only significant predictor for consulting somebody about acute respiratory infections. CONCLUSION: Intervention strategies to control acute respiratory infections in children less than 2 years of age should target working mothers, less educated mothers, malnourished unvaccinated children and encourage periodic follow up visits for children.

PMID: 11360089 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

8: Saudi Med J. 2000 Dec;21(12):1147-51. Related Articles, Links

Knowledge and practices of mothers about infants' diarrheal episodes.

Moawed SA, Saeed AA.

Department of Nursing, College of Applied Sciences, King Saud University, PO Box 10219, Riyadh 11433, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. smoawed@ksu.edu.sa

OBJECTIVES: To study the socioeconomic correlates of infants' diarrhea as well as infants' mothers' knowledge and practice concerning diarrheal diseases. METHODS: Study subjects included 300 infants (150 from Sulaimania Pediatrics Hospital and 150 from the Maternal and Childrens Hospital) with diarrheal episodes during the study period selected by systematic random sampling. Data was collected via a structured open ended pilot tested modified questionnaire filled in by trained Arabic speaking research assistants who interviewed mothers about the diarrheal aspects of their infants, assessed their knowledge and practices concerning diarrheal diseases in children as well as collecting the necessary sociodemographic characteristics of the mothers, fathers and infants themselves. RESULTS: The majority of parents of infants with diarrhea were illiterate or can just read and write, mothers were mostly young aged 20 - 29 years, family income for about 40% of the subjects was less than 5000 Saudi Riyals per month. Diarrheal episodes were mostly in infants 6 months or less in age, mostly the first child in order with males more affected than females. Mothers' knowledge about many aspects of diarrhea was grossly deficient but tends to increase with increasing age, educational level, and birth order. Mothers' practices were better but still deficient and sources of information about diarrhea was mostly from non health professionals. CONCLUSION: Intervention strategies to control infants diarrheal episodes needs to be through an integrated approach aiming at boosting mothers' knowledge and improving their practice concerning diarrhea and improving the families socioeconomic status and encouraging all health professionals to act as a readily available source for health information about diarrhea and other important health problems.

PMID: 11360088 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

9: Saudi Med J. 2001 Mar;22(3):262-7. Related Articles, Links

Satisfaction and correlates of patients' satisfaction with physicians' services in primary health care centers.

Saeed AA, Mohammed BA, Magzoub ME, Al-Doghaither AH.

Department of Community Health Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. asaeed@ksu.edu.sa

OBJECTIVE: To estimate quantitatively consumers' satisfaction and correlates of satisfaction with physicians' services provided by Ministry of Health Primary Health Care Centers in attending consumers. METHODS: Consumers (n = 540) attending the selected Primary Health Care Centers in Riyadh were asked about their satisfaction with physician's services. Eight Primary Health Care Centers were randomly selected according to the geographical location, two from each geographical zone. Seventy-five subjects were selected systematically where every tenth Saudi aged 15 years and above who visited the selected Primary Health Care Centers during the study period was chosen. Data was collected via a self administered pilot tested, internally consistent patient satisfaction questionnaire which included socio-demographic characteristics as well as the overall and differential satisfaction with the different aspects of physicians' services in the selected Primary Health Care Centers rated in a scale of 1 5 points, the higher the score the higher the satisfaction. RESULTS: The results revealed that males constituted 60%, and 58% of all patients were married, more than 60% were employees and more than 70% have a monthly income of less than 6000 Saudi Riyals. Almost 95% have an open file in the Primary Health Care Center and 39% think that the distance to the Primary Health Care Center is far or very far. The summary satisfaction score was 3.77 points and the mean satisfaction with the services provided by physicians was 2.56 points out of a maximum of 5 points The highest satisfaction was for discussing psychological aspects of patients' problems (2.96 points) and the lowest was for attentive listening to patients' complaints (2.22 points). Physicians' communication skills were more satisfactory to patients than their professional skills and satisfying patients' wishes scored the lowest satisfaction- Unskilled laborers, literate patients and patients with higher income showed significantly higher mean satisfaction while students, illiterates, those aged less than 50 years and patients with income less than 6000 Riyals per months scored the lowest satisfaction. The longer the distance travelled the lower the satisfaction scores but having a file or not was not related to satisfaction. CONCLUSION: Some physicians' service items need corrective intervention and students and young patients appear to need more attention.

PMID: 11307115 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

10: J R Soc Health. 2000 Sep;120(3):170-4. Related Articles, Links

Patients' satisfaction with physicians' services in primary healthcare centres in Kuwait City, Kuwait.

al-Doghaither AH, Abdelrhman BM, Saeed AA.

Department of Community Health Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Enhancing patient satisfaction offers a way of optimising health status and helps in the reduction of wastage of medical resources. The direct measurement of patient satisfaction is new in Kuwait. This study aimed to assess patient satisfaction with respect to physicians' services in primary health care (PHC) and to determine the association of patients sociodemographic variables on their satisfaction level. The sample consisted of 301 patients selected systematically from five primary healthcare centres (PHCC) to represent various geographic areas in Kuwait. The data were collected by personal interview using a structured questionnaire. The overall mean satisfaction with physician services was 2.21 points out of a maximum of five points. The results from multiple regression analysis indicated that gender, marital status, occupation and income are the most important predictors, with females, married, labourers and higher income levels having the highest mean satisfaction score. The principal component analysis indicated that the most important aspect is 'communication' which accounted for 54% of the total variance. The results suggested a need for an educational programme to inform patients of the objectives and limits of primary health services.

PMID: 11077805 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

11: Public Health. 1997 Jan;111(1):51-5. Related Articles, Links

Seasonal variation and weather effects on road traffic accidents in Riyadh city.

Nofal FH, Saeed AA.

Department of Community Health Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

The monthly variation of Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) in Riyadh city in the period 1989-1993 has been studied with reference to time of day, lighting conditions and prevalent weather conditions. Total RTA accidents were significantly more common, being directly correlated, with increased dry and wet bulb temperatures and significantly less common, being inversely correlated, with increased relative humidity and amount of precipitation of rain, snow, hail etc. However, RTAs recorded on rainy days only were significantly more common and directly correlated with precipitation (Note days of snow and hail are very rare in Riyadh city). Seasonal variation in RTAs was evident being maximal during the summer season particularly between 12 noon and 3 pm. This period is characterized by heavy traffic and intense sunlight. The role of hot weather prevalent in Saudi Arabia, where average temperatures of 34.4-34.7 degrees C with maximum of 40-42.7 degrees C are common in summer, have been suggested to be an important factor leading to increased stress and decreased performance of intellectual tasks which require considerable physical effort and motor skills. Increased heart rates, exacerbation of existing pathologic conditions such as heart disease and emphysema and loss of visual acuity have been reported. Consequently, prolonged exposure to heat must be considered as a hazard to the safety and health of drivers and a factor leading to an increased incidence of RTAs.

Publication Types:
  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 9033225 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

12: Tob Control. 1996 Autumn;5(3):215-9. Related Articles, Links

Smoking behaviour and attitudes among adult Saudi nationals in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia.

Saeed AA, Khoja TA, Khan SB.

Department of Community Health Sciences, College Of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

OBJECTIVE: To measure the smoking behaviour and attitudes among Saudi adults residing in Riyadh City, the capital of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: Primary health care centres (PHCCs) in Riyadh City were selected by stratified random sampling. Subjects resident in each PHCC catchment area were selected by systematic sampling from their records in the PHCCs; 1534 adults aged 15 years and older were interviewed during January to April 1994. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported smoking prevalence; age of smoking initiation; daily cigarette consumption; duration of smoking; reasons for smoking, not smoking, and quitting smoking; intentions to smoke in the future; and attitudes toward various tobacco control measures. RESULTS: 25.3% of respondents were current smokers, 10.2% were ex-smokers, and 64.5% had never smoked. About 79% of all smokers started smoking between the ages of 15 and 30 years, and 19.5% before age 15. Significantly higher smoking prevalence and daily cigarette consumption were associated with being male, single, and being more highly educated. Relief of psychological tension, boredom, and imitating others were the most important reasons for smoking, whereas health and religious considerations were the most important reasons for not smoking among never-smokers, for quitting among ex-smokers, and for attempting to quit or thinking about quitting among current smokers. About 90% of all subjects thought that they would not smoke in the future. Physicians and religious men were identified as the most effective anti-smoking advocates by a much higher proportion of respondents (44%) than nurses, health educators, and teachers (each less than 5%). Health and religious education were generally cited as more effective in deterring smoking than tobacco control laws and policies. CONCLUSIONS: Cigarette smoking is prevalent among Saudi adults in Riyadh, particularly males, most of whom begin to smoke rather early in life and continue for many years. Health and religious education should be the cornerstone for any organised tobacco control activities, which are urgently needed to combat the expected future epidemic of smoking-related health problems.

Publication Types:
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 9035357 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

13: J R Soc Health. 1996 Oct;116(5):304-11. Related Articles, Links

Aetiological factors contributing to road traffic accidents in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia.

Nofal FH, Saeed AA, Anokute CC.

Department of Community Health Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

The study analysed 13,390 police records of road traffic accidents (RTAs) covering a three and a half year period according to different suspected aetiological factors. The majority of the accidents were recorded for vehicles in good condition on well-paved straight roads with well-operating traffic light systems. Adverse weather conditions such as precipitation, fog and dust were of minimal importance, with most of the accidents being reported during sunny days during the rush period of 12 noon to 3 pm. Driver's error was identified as the main contributing factor in about two thirds of all RTAs mainly as reckless driving and excess speeding. About 27% of the drivers were professional drivers and 41% were in the age group 25-35 years in good health with no alcohol or drug intake. Hence, human errors may be attributed to carelessness, experience, lack of knowledge or attention, over-exhaustion or fatigue. The effects of physical stressors on performance of drivers need to be further explored and clarified but this need not underestimate the importance of vehicle and environment since most accidents are multifactoral and a slight change in them may effectively enhance perception and minimise personal error. Recommendations for remedial measures adopting an interdisciplinary approach are presented.

PMID: 8936950 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

14: J R Soc Health. 1993 Jun;113(3):132-5. Related Articles, Links

Smoking habits of students in secondary health institutes in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia.

Saeed AA, al-Johali EA, al-Shahry AH.

College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

The smoking habits of all male and female students enrolled in Riyadh Secondary Health Institutes of the Ministry of Health in 1990 were studied using a self-administered questionnaire. The overall smoking prevalence was 22%. Cigarettes were virtually the only form of tobacco used. Males smoked about twice the females in terms of prevalence (24% and 14%) and intensity (14 and 6 cigarettes per day). The majority of smokers for both sexes started the habit at or before the age of 16 years and the majority of them thought seriously about quitting and attempted to quit but only 12% of them were so far successful. Psychologic pressures, smoking contacts and foreign travel were important factors in relapses. Religious, health and professional considerations were the most important motives for attempting to quit the habit among smokers and for not attempting the habit itself for the non smokers.

Publication Types:
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 8320691 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

15: Trop Geogr Med. 1991 Jan-Apr;43(1-2):76-9. Related Articles, Links

Attitudes and behaviour of physicians towards smoking in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia.

Saeed AA.

Dept. of Community Health Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

In Riyadh city 698 physicians were studied for their smoking habits, attitudes and behaviour; 48% were smokers and 34% are currently smoking. Males smoked significantly more than females currently and in the past. Smoking prevalence and intensity tended to decrease with age and quitting periods were longer. More than 60% of the physicians agreed that smoking is a major contributing factor in the causation of coronary artery disease, lung cancer and chronic bronchitis; less than 20% said the same for bladder cancer and neonatal death. Setting a good example for children was the most important reason for not smoking.

Publication Types:
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 1750134 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

16: Soc Sci Med. 1988;27(3):287-9. Related Articles, Links

Self-medication among primary care patients in Farazdak Clinic in Riyadh.

Saeed AA.

College of Allied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Four hundred and thirty new adult patients were interviewed using a questionnaire for their attitudes and practices regarding self-medication. 69% of the patients were males and 40% were Saudis. 58% of the patients attempted self-medication due to the triviality of their symptoms or to save time and money. They used mostly analgesics, vitamins, tonics and oral antibiotics. 41.6% of the patients did not practise self-medication because of lack of information about the drugs or for fear of complications. Self-medication was associated with literacy and morbidity. Literate patients self-medicated significantly more than illiterates. Patients who perceived their symptoms as minor self-medicated significantly more than those who perceived them as major. No association was found between self-medication and age, sex or occupation.

PMID: 3175712 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

17: J R Soc Health. 1987 Oct;107(5):187-8. Related Articles, Links

Smoking habits of students in College of Allied Medical Sciences, Riyadh.

Saeed AA.

PMID: 3119845 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

18: Trop Geogr Med. 1984 Sep;36(3):267-72. Related Articles, Links

Utilization of primary health services in Port Sudan, Sudan.

Saeed AA.

The utilization of primary health services provided by two health centres and a hospital out-patient department was studied. The epidemiologic pattern was similar in the three health care facilities; minor gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract and skin conditions formed the majority of cases. Distance was a limiting factor for utilization of health services in the health centres and not in the hospital. The average consultation time per patient was two minutes. Lack of drugs was the universal problem. Suggestions and recommendations to solve some of the problems and improve services are presented.

PMID: 6506206 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 Display  Summary Brief Abstract AbstractPlus Citation MEDLINE XML UI List LinkOut ASN.1 Related Articles Cited Articles Cited in Books CancerChrom Links Domain Links 3D Domain Links GEO DataSet Links Gene Links Gene (GeneRIF) Links Genome Links Project Links GENSAT Links GEO Profile Links HomoloGene Links Nucleotide Links Nucleotide (RefSeq) Links OMIA Links OMIM (calculated) Links OMIM (cited) Links BioAssay Links Compound Links Compound via MeSH Substance Links Substance via MeSH PMC Links Cited in PMC PopSet Links Probe Links Protein Links Protein (RefSeq) Links SNP Links Structure Links Taxonomy via GenBank UniGene Links UniSTS Links Show  5 10 20 50 100 200 500 Sort by Pub Date First Author Last Author Journal Send to Text File Printer Clipboard E-mail Order

 
King   Saud University. All rights reserved, 2007 | Disclaimer | CiteSeerx