ABDALLA ABDELWAHID SAEED ( SAEED A)
(( ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC PUBLISHED WORK ))
1. Saudi Medical Journal ( ACCEPTED for publication - 2007 )
Gender Differences in Smoking Behavior Among Adolescents in Saudi Arabia
Abdalla A, Al-Kabba A, Saeed A, MD, Abdulrahman B , Raat, H
Objective: To describe and assess gender differences in current cigarette smokers' according to certain variables including prevalence of tobacco use, access to tobacco, knowledge and attitude, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, attitude toward cessation of smoking, exposure to tobacco related advertisements in media, and education on tobacco and smoking in school among adolescents in grades 7 – 12 in Tabuk, Saudi Arabia.
Methods: A random sample of schools in Tabuk city was obtained using a two-stage cluster, in April 2005. A total of 16 Governmental schools were selected (response rate 100%). Within the schools, 48 classes were selected, targeting grades 7 to 12. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire was completed by all students present on the day of the survey, with 96% response rate from a total of 1,505 participants.
Results: Out of 1,505 students that participated in the study, 43.9% (65.0% males and 23.2% females) were ever smokers (students who had ever smoked cigarettes even one or two puffs), 22.5% (34.0% males, 11.3% females) were current cigarette smokers (students who had smoked on one or more days in the 30 days preceding the survey ), and 5.8% (11.1% males, 0.7% females) were daily smokers, with significant gender differences concerning source of cigarettes, usual place of smoke, and intensity of smoking. Approximately 57.0% of males obtained their cigarettes from a store, while 59.0% of females stole it from home. The majority of males (68.5%) usually smoked in public places while the majority of females (80.0%) usually smoked at home. More than 55.0% of males smoked two or more cigarettes per day, compared to only 21.2% for females. Also, there were significant gender differences in knowledge on addiction of tobacco, exposure to education on tobacco, attitudes related to cigarette smoking, and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in public places. No significant gender differences were found with respect to age of initiation, knowledge of health hazards of tobacco, exposure to media, desire to quit, or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at home.
Conclusion: The results of this study have the potential to aid in the design of effective anti-smoking programs for current smokers in general, and differential intervention strategies in males and females For the suppression of the use of tobacco by children under the age of 18 years in Saudi Arabia, measures are needed, such as stricter policies prohibiting the use of tobacco in public places and the sale of tobacco to minors, to reduce youth access to cigarettes – in addition to intensive school and community anti-tobacco programs.
2.Saudi Med J. 2005 Jun;26(6):1030 - 1032
Consumer satisfaction with primary health care services in Hail City,
Consumer satisfaction with primary health care services in Hail City,
( Brief Communication )
Abdalla AM, Saeed AA, Magzoub M, Reerink 1
Facility –based cross-sectional study during August 1999 in 320 patients selected systematically from 4 randomly selected primary health care center in Hail city. A self-administered questionnaire was used covering different aspects of patients' satisfaction with services provided. The overall mean satisfaction was 3.68 out of 5 points. Higher satisfaction was associated significantly associated with shorter travel distance and having an active family record in the center. The highest satisfaction was for physician (4.42) and the lowest for laboratory services ( 2.67). Communication scored the lowest score for physicians attributes.
3. J R Soc Health. 2003 Jun;123(2):105-9.Related Articles, Links
Factors influencing patient choice of hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Al-Doghaither AH, Abdelrhman BM, Saeed AA, Magzoub ME.
This study examined factors considered important in choosing a hospital.
The sample consisted of 303 respondents selected from five randomly
selected primary health care centres. The percentages of males, highly
educated, high-income level, elder and private sector employees was
higher in those choosing private sector hospitals, while marital status
did not relate to type of hospital. The principal component analysis
identified six factors accounting for 64% of the total variance. The
most important component was 'medical services' accounting for 28% of
the total variance. Stepwise discriminant analysis revealed that the
main factors associated with choosing a hospital were medical services,
accessibility, age, sex and education. Little importance was given to
income and occupation. Future recommendations outline the need for
consumers' perceptions, attitudes, suggestions and concerns to be taken
into consideration when marketing the services to be provided.
4. Public Health Nutr. 2002 Dec;5(6):727-737
Diarrhoea and child feeding practices in Saudi Arabia.
Bani IA, Saeed AA, Othman AA.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of
diarrhoea in children less than two years old and study the relationship
between diarrhoeal episodes and action taken for these episodes by their
mothers. DESIGN: The prevalence of diarrhoeal episodes among children
and its associations with sociodemographic information and
anthropometric measurements of the subjects was examined. Predictive
factors for morbidity-associated diarrhoeal disease and actions taken
for this were explored. SETTING: Primary health care centres (PHCCs) in
Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. SUBJECTS: Children less than two years
of age. RESULTS: Nearly a quarter of the children contracted diarrhoea
during the two weeks preceding the data collection point, giving about
six episodes of diarrhoea per child per year. Diarrhoea was more common
in children over 6 months of age, in children who had no vaccination or
follow-up cards, and in those who were taken care of by friends and
neighbours if their mothers were working outside the home. The mothers
of the affected children were young, married before 25 years of age with
2-6 years of formal schooling. During diarrhoeal episodes, about 25% of
mothers stopped or decreased breast-feeding, 11.3% reduced the volume of
fluids given to their children, and 22.7% of children were fed less
solid/semi-solid foods. Mothers used oral rehydration salt in more than
40% of diarrhoeal episodes and unprescribed antibiotics were used in 17%
of cases. The mothers who were not taking appropriate action included
young mothers with low education level and those working outside the
home. CONCLUSION: Diarrhoea is common in children less than two years
old in Riyadh City, and intervention based in PHCCs needs to be
undertaken to correct the faulty practices of mothers during diarrhoeal
episodes in their children. Health education messages should emphasise
feeding during diarrhoeal episodes.
5.Saudi Med J. 2002 Oct;23(10):1237-1242
Patients' perspective on factors affecting utilization of primary health
care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Saeed AA, Mohamed BA.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to assess factors which the patients
think can encourage, discourage or have no effect on utilization of
Primary Health Care Centers (PHCCs) in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
METHODS: Patients (n=540) attending the selected PHCCs in Riyadh were
asked regarding their views on 21 (factors) items and whether they can
encourage, discourage or has no effect on utilization of PHCCs services.
Eight PHCCs were randomly selected according to the geographical
location, 2 from each geographical zone. Seventy-five subjects were
selected systematically, every 10th Saudi aged 15 years and above who
visited the selected PHCCs during a one-month period (September 1998).
The data was collected via a self administered pilot tested, internally
consistent questionnaire which included patients' sociodemographic
characteristics and their response to the 21 items rated as highly
encouraging, encouraging, has no effect or discouraging utilization of
offered health services.
RESULTS: More than 60% of the patients were
males, aged 15-39 years, 47% finished secondary school, 5.2% were
illiterate, 58% of all patients were married, more than 60% were
employees and approximately 60% have a monthly income of less than 4500
Saudi Riyals. Manpower factors particularly the physician, Arabic
speaking health team and free service were the most encouraging factors,
while overcrowding and geographical location of the PHCCs, particularly
location near public services, were the least encouraging factors.
Patients' gender, education and occupation were the most important and
age was the least important patients' characteristics associated with
CONCLUSION: An experienced physician, Moslem
physicians and an Arabic speaking health team offering free service in
PHCCs located near patients' homes can augment utilization of services.
6.Saudi Med J. 2002 Aug;23(8):909-14.Related Articles, Links
Mothers' practices during pregnancy, lactation and care of their
children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Al-Othman AM, Saeed AA, Bani IA, Al-Murshed KS.
Department of Community Health Sciences, College of Applied Medical
Sciences, King Saud University, PO Box 10219, Riyadh 11433, Kingdom of
Saudi Arabia. Tel. +966 (1) 4355392/4355010. Fax. +966 (1) 4355883.
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com
OBJECTIVE: To study mothers' practices during pregnancy, lactation and
care during the first 2 years.
METHODS: A cross section study was
carried out in 5 Primary Health Care Centres (PHCC) in Riyadh, Kingdom
of Saudi Arabia. Two hundred and fifty women (50 from each PHCC) who
have children less than 2-years of age who visited the selected PHCCs
during the study period were selected by systematic random sampling.
Data was collected via a questionnaire which contained sociodemographic
characteristics of the mother and their children and mothers' practices
during pregnancy, lactation and the care of their children.
Approximately 73% of the mothers breast fed their children initially but
only 37.6% are currently breast feeding their children. The majority of
the mothers started breast feeding during 1-8 hours after delivery, 63%
added supplementary foods to their children at 4-8 months. The majority
of mothers visited antenatal clinics during pregnancy, vaccinated their
children and followed up their children in well baby clinics. Half of
the mothers are currently using contraceptives and 19% are consuming
less food during pregnancy. The mothers' educational level was the most
important factor associated with mothers' practices.
mothers' practices during pregnancy, lactation and child care needs
7. Saudi Med J. 2001 Mar;22(3):262-272
Satisfaction and correlates of patients' satisfaction with physicians'
services in primary health care centers.
Saeed AA, Mohammed BA, Magzoub ME, Al-Doghaither AH.
OBJECTIVE: To estimate quantitatively consumers' satisfaction and
correlates of satisfaction with physicians' services provided by
Ministry of Health Primary Health Care Centers in attending consumers.
METHODS: Consumers (n = 540) attending the selected Primary Health Care
Centers in Riyadh were asked about their satisfaction with physician's
services. Eight Primary Health Care Centers were randomly selected
according to the geographical location, two from each geographical zone.
Seventy-five subjects were selected systematically where every tenth
Saudi aged 15 years and above who visited the selected Primary Health
Care Centers during the study period was chosen. Data was collected via
a self administered pilot tested, internally consistent patient
satisfaction questionnaire which included socio-demographic
characteristics as well as the overall and differential satisfaction
with the different aspects of physicians' services in the selected
Primary Health Care Centers rated in a scale of 1 5 points, the higher
the score the higher the satisfaction.
RESULTS: The results revealed that males constituted 60%, and 58% of all patients were
married, more than 60% were employees and more than 70% have a monthly income of
less than 6000 Saudi Riyals. Almost 95% have an open file in the Primary
Health Care Center and 39% think that the distance to the Primary Health
Care Center is far or very far. The summary satisfaction score was 3.77
points and the mean satisfaction with the services provided by
physicians was 2.56 points out of a maximum of 5 points The highest
satisfaction was for discussing psychological aspects of patients'
problems (2.96 points) and the lowest was for attentive listening to
patients' complaints (2.22 points). Physicians' communication skills
were more satisfactory to patients than their professional skills and
satisfying patients' wishes scored the lowest satisfaction- Unskilled
laborers, literate patients and patients with higher income showed
significantly higher mean satisfaction while students, illiterates,
those aged less than 50 years and patients with income less than 6000
Riyals per months scored the lowest satisfaction. The longer the
distance travelled the lower the satisfaction scores but having a file
or not was not related to satisfaction.
CONCLUSION: Some physicians' service items need corrective intervention and students and
young patients appear to need more attention.
8. J Fam Comm Med 2001 December 8(3) : 59 –65
Patient s’ satisfaction with primary health care centers services in Kuwait City, Kuwait.
Al-Doghaither A, Abdelrahman B, Saeed A, Magzoub M.
Background : Assessment of patient satisfaction offers a way of optimizing health status and prevent waste of medical resources. The direct measurement of patient satisfaction is a new phenomenon in Kuwait.
Methods: The sample consisted of 301 patients selected systematically from five primary health care centers to represent various geographic areas in Kuwait City. Just over 56% of the sample were females, 59% were married , the great majority (70.4%) were government employees, more than 60% had a monthly income of less than 900 KD , more than 54% were intermediate and high secondary school graduates, and 37% were university graduates or had advanced degrees. The data was collected by personal interview using structured questionnaire.
Results :The overall mean satisfaction was 3.1 points out of five points (62%). The mean satisfaction scores were 3.64, 3.29, 3.08, 3.05, 2.21 for laboratory, pharmacy, radiology, dental and physician services respectively. The highest mean score for physician services was obtained for communication skills ( 2.23); for pharmacy services the availability of medicines (4.1) ; for laboratory services, the availability of laboratory materials (3.73); for radiology services, the waiting time for x-ray (3.60); and for dental services, the adequacy of dentists 93.27). The results indicated that gender, income, marital status and occupation were the most consistent demographic predictors of , satisfaction with females , those with lower income, lower education levels and unemployed having higher mean satisfaction scores.
Conclusion: There is a need for corrective intervention in some service areas and for an educational program to inform patients of the objectives and limitation of primary health services.
9. J R Soc Health. 2000 Sep;120(3):170-174
Patients' satisfaction with physicians' services in primary healthcare
centres in Kuwait City, Kuwait.
al-Doghaither AH, Abdelrhman BM, Saeed AA.
Enhancing patient satisfaction offers a way of optimising health status
and helps in the reduction of wastage of medical resources. The direct
measurement of patient satisfaction is new in Kuwait. This study aimed
to assess patient satisfaction with respect to physicians' services in
primary health care (PHC) and to determine the association of patients
sociodemographic variables on their satisfaction level. The sample
consisted of 301 patients selected systematically from five primary
healthcare centres (PHCC) to represent various geographic areas in
Kuwait. The data were collected by personal interview using a structured
questionnaire. The overall mean satisfaction with physician services was
2.21 points out of a maximum of five points. The results from multiple
regression analysis indicated that gender, marital status, occupation
and income are the most important predictors, with females, married,
labourers and higher income levels having the highest mean satisfaction
score. The principal component analysis indicated that the most
important aspect is 'communication' which accounted for 54% of the total
variance. The results suggested a need for an educational programme to
inform patients of the objectives and limits of primary health services.
10.Saudi Med J. 2000 May;21(5):447-54
Consumers' satisfaction with primary health services in the city of
Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Al-Doghaither AH, Saeed AA.
Department of Community Health Sciences, College of Applied Medical
Sciences, King Saud University, PO Box 10219, Riyadh 11433, Kingdom of
OBJECTIVE: To study consumers' satisfaction and socio-demographic
correlates of satisfaction with services provided by Primary Health Care
Centres in the city of Jeddah. METHODS: Study subjects included the
consumers visiting the Primary Health Care Centres during the study
period. Four Primary Health Care Centres were randomly selected from
Jeddah according to the geographical location. Seventy five subjects
were selected systematically where every tenth Saudi aged 15 years or
above was chosen. Data was collected via a self administered pilot
tested questionnaire which included socio-demographic characteristics,
as well as the overall and differential satisfaction with the different
services and facilities in the selected Primary Health Care Centres
rated on a scale of 1 - 5 points, the higher the score the higher the
satisfaction. RESULTS: Male subjects constituted 60% of the visitors.
More than half of the subjects were young 15-29 years of age, about 58%
were married, 50% completed intermediate/secondary school, more than two
fifths of the subjects were employees and more than three quarters have
a monthly income of 6000 Saudi Riyals or less. The summary satisfaction
score was 3.76 points and the overall satisfaction with the services
provided was 2.45 points out of a maximum of 5 points. The highest
satisfaction was for dental clinic (3.44 points) and the lowest for co-
operation of the receptionist (1.95 point). Unskilled laborers showed
the highest summary and overall satisfaction (4.31 and 2.71 points) and
students showed the lowest satisfaction scores (3.54 and 1.89 points).
Other socio-demographic variables were not significantly related to
summary and overall satisfaction scores. CONCLUSION: Measuring
satisfaction by asking one summary question tends to give a
significantly higher satisfaction score compared to satisfaction score
taking in consideration of all services offered. Certain service
components need corrective intervention measures to make them more
satisfactory to consumers.
11.Saudi Med J. 2000 Dec;21(12):1152-6.Related Articles, Links
Prevalence and correlates of acute respiratory infections in children
less than two years of age.
Saeed AA, Bani IA.
OBJECTIVES: To study acute respiratory infections of children less than
2 years of age in Riyadh City and their sociodemographic and
METHODS: Study subjects included 250 mothers
selected by systematic random sampling from mothers attending 5 Primary
Health Care Centers selected by simple random sampling from the 5
geographical zones (one from each zone) in Riyadh during a one month
period. Data was collected via a structured pilot tested modified
questionnaire filled in by trained research assistants who interviewed
mothers regarding acute respiratory infections during the past 2 weeks
in their children aged less than 2 years. Heights and weights of both
children and mothers were measured and the necessary sociodemographic
characteristics of the mothers, and children were collected by the
research assistants in addition to mothers' practices concerning their
child's acute respiratory infections.
RESULTS: The prevalence of acute
respiratory infection in children was 24%, mostly in children whose
mothers are less educated, aged 35 years or more, married at age 25
years or more and whose relatives take care of their children while
working outside the home. The children affected were mostly 7 - 12
months of age, lighter in weight, not vaccinated, with no follow up
cards and not weighed during the last 4 months. About 3 quarters of the
mothers consulted somebody about acute respiratory infections, mostly at
modern health facilities particularly government Primary Health Care
Centers. Tachypnea, or diarrhea or both were the most important symptoms
urging mothers to seek medical advice. Working mothers whose children
are taken care of by relatives is the only significant predictor of
acute respiratory infections, and children with a follow up card is the
only significant predictor for consulting somebody about acute
respiratory infections. CONCLUSION: Intervention strategies to control
acute respiratory infections in children less than 2 years of age should
target working mothers, less educated mothers, malnourished unvaccinated
children and encourage periodic follow up visits for children.
12..Saudi Med J. 2000 Dec;21(12):1147-51
Knowledge and practices of mothers about infants' diarrheal episodes.
Moawed SA, Saeed AA.
Department of Nursing, College of Applied Sciences, King Saud
University, PO Box 10219, Riyadh 11433, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
OBJECTIVES: To study the socioeconomic correlates of infants' diarrhea
as well as infants' mothers' knowledge and practice concerning diarrheal
diseases. METHODS: Study subjects included 300 infants (150 from
Sulaimania Pediatrics Hospital and 150 from the Maternal and Childrens
Hospital) with diarrheal episodes during the study period selected by
systematic random sampling. Data was collected via a structured open
ended pilot tested modified questionnaire filled in by trained Arabic
speaking research assistants who interviewed mothers about the diarrheal
aspects of their infants, assessed their knowledge and practices
concerning diarrheal diseases in children as well as collecting the
necessary sociodemographic characteristics of the mothers, fathers and
infants themselves. RESULTS: The majority of parents of infants with
diarrhea were illiterate or can just read and write, mothers were mostly
young aged 20 - 29 years, family income for about 40% of the subjects
was less than 5000 Saudi Riyals per month. Diarrheal episodes were
mostly in infants 6 months or less in age, mostly the first child in
order with males more affected than females. Mothers' knowledge about
many aspects of diarrhea was grossly deficient but tends to increase
with increasing age, educational level, and birth order. Mothers'
practices were better but still deficient and sources of information
about diarrhea was mostly from non health professionals. CONCLUSION:
Intervention strategies to control infants diarrheal episodes needs to
be through an integrated approach aiming at boosting mothers' knowledge
and improving their practice concerning diarrhea and improving the
families socioeconomic status and encouraging all health professionals
to act as a readily available source for health information about
diarrhea and other important health problems.
13..Saudi Med J. 1998 Juner;19(6):707-712.Related Articles, Links
Hypertension awareness : treatment and control among adult hypertensives.
Hashim T, Anokute C, Al-Shammary F, Khoja T, Saeed A, Khan C.
Objectives : To measure the prevalence of undetected hypertension among adults residing in Riyadh city and to study the non pharmacological modalities used by detected hypertensives and compliance with pharmacologic therapy.
Methods :A cross-sectional study conducted at primary health care centers in Riyadh city selected by stratified random sampling. The subjects resident in each primary health care center catchment area were selected by systematic sampling from records in the primary health care centers . One thousand three hundreds and ninety four adults aged 15 years and more werte interviewed and examined during March 1993 to March 1994. The average of three measurements of the participants blood pressure was taken to represent their current blood pressure . A subject is considered hypertensive if the average blood pressure reading 1s 160/95 mmhg or more, or currently under treatment.
Results : The total hypertensive subjects were 214 persons, 157 of whom were known hypertensives and were under some form of treatment but 49 subjects of them(31.2%) were apparently not well controlled. The other 57 subjects were not aware of their disease and were newly detected by the study. almost two fifths of the hypertensives on drug therapy stopped their medication without medical advice or were not taking their medications regularly. Reduction in salt intake was the most common non pharmacological method used.
Conclusion :Detected and undetected hypertension is a problem among adults in Riyadh city,many patients are not taking medications regularly and physical exercise is the least practiced non pharmacological treatment modality. There is a need for activities to prevent, control and treat hypertension in Riyadh city. Educational programs are highly needed to help in primary orevention and in secondary prevention by detecting new cases with emphasis on lifestyle modifications and compliance with pharmacologic and non pharmacologic therapies.
14. Public Health. 1997 Jan;111(1):51-5.
Seasonal variation and weather effects on road traffic accidents in
Nofal FH, Saeed AA.
Department of Community Health Sciences, College of Applied Medical
Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
The monthly variation of Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) in Riyadh city in
the period 1989-1993 has been studied with reference to time of day,
lighting conditions and prevalent weather conditions. Total RTA
accidents were significantly more common, being directly correlated,
with increased dry and wet bulb temperatures and significantly less
common, being inversely correlated, with increased relative humidity and
amount of precipitation of rain, snow, hail etc. However, RTAs recorded
on rainy days only were significantly more common and directly
correlated with precipitation (Note days of snow and hail are very rare
in Riyadh city). Seasonal variation in RTAs was evident being maximal
during the summer season particularly between 12 noon and 3 pm. This
period is characterized by heavy traffic and intense sunlight. The role
of hot weather prevalent in Saudi Arabia, where average temperatures of
34.4-34.7 degrees C with maximum of 40-42.7 degrees C are common in
summer, have been suggested to be an important factor leading to
increased stress and decreased performance of intellectual tasks which
require considerable physical effort and motor skills. Increased heart
rates, exacerbation of existing pathologic conditions such as heart
disease and emphysema and loss of visual acuity have been reported.
Consequently, prolonged exposure to heat must be considered as a hazard
to the safety and health of drivers and a factor leading to an increased
incidence of RTAs.
15.Saudi Med J. 1997 Feb.;18(6):169 – 174
Self reported smoking quitting attempts and their outcomes in adult Saudi smokers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Saeed A, Khoja T, Khan C.
Objectives : To study the factors associated with quitting attempts and their outcomes in adult Saudi smokers in Riyadh City, capital of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Design: Cross-sectional survey
Setting : Primary Health Care Centers (PHCCs) selected by systematic sampling from their records in the PHCCs.
Participants: One thousand five hundreds and fifty four adults aged 15 years and over were interviewed during January – April 1994.
Main outcome measure : Self-reported smoking habits, quitting attempts and their outcomes .
Results :Fifty four point three percent of all smokers attempted to quit mainly because of health and religious considerations . Only 52.6% of those who attempted to quit (28% of ever smokers) were successful quitters at the time of study with an average quitting period of more than one year. Quitting attempts were significantly more in females, unmarried and those with no university education. Age, income , duration and intensity of smoking were not significantly related to quitting attempts and their outcome. The majority of smokers tried quitting on their own with only 18.7% seeking assistance from smoking cessation clinics in the city and males more inclined to do this than females. More than 48% of smokers who contacted smoking cessation clinics were not satisfied with services offered . Of those who failed to quit , 35% had primary failure ( 0 – 6 days quitting period) and 65% stopped for varying quitting periods ranging from 1 – 52 weeks. No significant association was found between both groups concerning the demographic variables studied or the duration or the intensity of smoking . Smoking contacts, stress, boredom, foreign travel and withdrawal symptoms were important factors in relapsers.
Conclusion: More than half of all smokers attempted to quit , mostly without assistance , but only half of them were successful . The existing smoking cessation clinics require to be evaluated and services need to be improved to attract the majority of smokers who wish to quit. In addition other forms of assistance such as mass media and anonymous quitting smoking activities must be looked at and probably legislative action taken
16. Tob Control. 1996 Autumn;5(3):215-9
Smoking behaviour and attitudes among adult Saudi nationals in Riyadh
City, Saudi Arabia.
Saeed AA, Khoja TA, Khan SB.
OBJECTIVE: To measure the smoking behaviour and attitudes among Saudi
adults residing in Riyadh City, the capital of the Kingdom of Saudi
DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey.
SETTING AND SUBJECTS: Primary
health care centres (PHCCs) in Riyadh City were selected by stratified
random sampling. Subjects resident in each PHCC catchment area were
selected by systematic sampling from their records in the PHCCs; 1534
adults aged 15 years and older were interviewed during January to April
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported smoking prevalence; age of
smoking initiation; daily cigarette consumption; duration of smoking;
reasons for smoking, not smoking, and quitting smoking; intentions to
smoke in the future; and attitudes toward various tobacco control
RESULTS: 25.3% of respondents were current smokers, 10.2% were
ex-smokers, and 64.5% had never smoked. About 79% of all smokers started
smoking between the ages of 15 and 30 years, and 19.5% before age 15.
Significantly higher smoking prevalence and daily cigarette consumption
were associated with being male, single, and being more highly educated.
Relief of psychological tension, boredom, and imitating others were the
most important reasons for smoking, whereas health and religious
considerations were the most important reasons for not smoking among
never-smokers, for quitting among ex-smokers, and for attempting to quit
or thinking about quitting among current smokers. About 90% of all
subjects thought that they would not smoke in the future. Physicians and
religious men were identified as the most effective anti-smoking
advocates by a much higher proportion of respondents (44%) than nurses,
health educators, and teachers (each less than 5%). Health and religious
education were generally cited as more effective in deterring smoking
than tobacco control laws and policies.
CONCLUSIONS: Cigarette smoking
is prevalent among Saudi adults in Riyadh, particularly males, most of
whom begin to smoke rather early in life and continue for many years.
Health and religious education should be the cornerstone for any
organised tobacco control activities, which are urgently needed to
combat the expected future epidemic of smoking-related health problems.
17. J R Soc Health. 1996 Oct;116(5):304-11.
Aetiological factors contributing to road traffic accidents in Riyadh
City, Saudi Arabia.
Nofal FH, Saeed AA, Anokute CC.
The study analysed 13,390 police records of road traffic accidents
(RTAs) covering a three and a half year period according to different
suspected aetiological factors. The majority of the accidents were
recorded for vehicles in good condition on well-paved straight roads
with well-operating traffic light systems. Adverse weather conditions
such as precipitation, fog and dust were of minimal importance, with
most of the accidents being reported during sunny days during the rush
period of 12 noon to 3 pm. Driver's error was identified as the main
contributing factor in about two thirds of all RTAs mainly as reckless
driving and excess speeding. About 27% of the drivers were professional
drivers and 41% were in the age group 25-35 years in good health with no
alcohol or drug intake. Hence, human errors may be attributed to
carelessness, experience, lack of knowledge or attention,
over-exhaustion or fatigue. The effects of physical stressors on
performance of drivers need to be further explored and clarified but
this need not underestimate the importance of vehicle and environment
since most accidents are multifactoral and a slight change in them may
effectively enhance perception and minimise personal error.
Recommendations for remedial measures adopting an interdisciplinary
approach are presented.
18.Saudi Medical Journal 1996 , 17(1): 11 -17
Patients' satisfaction with access ability and services offered in Riyadh health centers.
Al-Faris E, Khoja T, Falouda M, Saeed A.
Objectives: The objective of the present study is to evaluate patient satisfaction with different aspects of the Primary Health Care Centers(PHCC) and to study certain factors that may contribute to this evaluation.
Design and methods: A cross-sectional patient satisfaction and attitude survey. A self-administered questionnaire was used for one during September 1992. In addition to demographic characteristics , it included questions relating to patient” views and comments regarding different aspects of the provided services and health personnel. The study was conducted in 6 randomly PHCC in Riyadh and included 466 randomly selected patients aged 12 and above.
Results : Patients had shown a high rate (90%) of overall satisfaction . It was more among the older age group, the non-Saudis, the married and the housewives. Patient’ education level and sex did not have significant effect on the overall satisfaction. Ideal physician attributes most liked were sympathy, physical examination, listening to patients’ complaints and experiences. Doctor” communication practice( e.g. explain patient’s condition, eye to eye contact) was criticized more frequently than their humaneness. Aspects of nursing disliked by patients include language barrier for 39% of the patients , disorganization for 30% and non-cooperation for 27% of the patients. Features of the health centers disliked most were overcrowding, absence of appointment systems and inadequate drug supply or laboratory services. Long waiting time (> 1 hour) and consultation time that is either too short (< 5 minutes) or too long (> 20 minutes ) were associated with dissatisfaction.
Conclusion: Although the majority of the study population reported overall satisfaction, some aspects of the services showed significant dissatisfaction. Suggestions directed at those areas were addressed.
King Saud University
19. J R Soc Health. 1993 Jun;113(3):132-5
Smoking habits of students in secondary health institutes in Riyadh
City, Saudi Arabia.
Saeed AA, al-Johali EA, al-Shahry AH.
The smoking habits of all male and female students enrolled in Riyadh
Secondary Health Institutes of the Ministry of Health in 1990 were
studied using a self-administered questionnaire. The overall smoking
prevalence was 22%. Cigarettes were virtually the only form of tobacco
used. Males smoked about twice the females in terms of prevalence (24%
and 14%) and intensity (14 and 6 cigarettes per day). The majority of
smokers for both sexes started the habit at or before the age of 16
years and the majority of them thought seriously about quitting and
attempted to quit but only 12% of them were so far successful.
Psychologic pressures, smoking contacts and foreign travel were
important factors in relapses. Religious, health and professional
considerations were the most important motives for attempting to quit
the habit among smokers and for not attempting the habit itself for the
20- Annals of Community-Oriented Education 1992, vol 5 : 105 – 109.
This paper presents the student and graduate experience of the rural residency course which aims to improve the performance of doctors in rural hospitals .
A questionnaire was distributed to the final and penultimate final year students, and to graduates working at the wad Medani Teaching Hospital. The response rate was 57%. The results have shown that the course was well received by the students and graduates. Positive educational experience were mentioned by both students and graduates. Problems facing this course and how these may be resolved are discussed.
21- Saudi Medical Journal 1992 Jan 13(1): 14 –17.
Users’ characteristics and satisfaction in the use of Olaisha primary heath care center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia/
Saeed A, Al-Swailem A, Anokute C, Whaley R.
The authors studied 560 patients using a primary health care centre (PHCC) , and investigated factors related to their usage and their suggestions for the improvement of services . Distance , nationality and educational status were significant factors in usage patterns. Patients indicated shorter waiting time and satisfaction with the services were important reasons to using the PHCC. Suggestions for improvement of service include expanded parking facilities and expanded laboratory services.
22- Annals Saudi Medicine 1991 , 11(2) : 141 – 143.
Smoking habits of King Saud University students in Riyadh.
Taha A, Bener A, Noah M, Saeed A, Al-Harthy S.
The smoking habits of 2264 male students at King Saud University were investigated. Thirty-seven percent of the students smoked, and over a half smoked more than 15 cigarettes per day. Cigarettes were the main form of smoking . Most of the smokers knew about the hazards of smoking through the media and wished to stop smoking. Nonsmokers cited religious consideration and nonsmoking parents as the most important reasons for not smoking . a public health campaign is strongly recommended to reduce the prevalence of smoking .
23. Trop Geogr Med. 1991 Jan-Apr;43(1-2):76-9.Related Articles,
Attitudes and behaviour of physicians towards smoking in Riyadh city,
Dept. of Community Health Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences,
King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
In Riyadh city 698 physicians were studied for their smoking habits,
attitudes and behaviour; 48% were smokers and 34% are currently smoking.
Males smoked significantly more than females currently and in the past.
Smoking prevalence and intensity tended to decrease with age and
quitting periods were longer. More than 60% of the physicians agreed
that smoking is a major contributing factor in the causation of coronary
artery disease, lung cancer and chronic bronchitis; less than 20% said
the same for bladder cancer and neonatal death. Setting a good example
for children was the most important reason for not smoking.
24- Saudi Medical Journal 1991, 12(4): 343 – 344.
Comparative study of the smoking habits of physicians in Cairo and Riyadh in 10 years
( letter to the Editor)
Saeed A, Taha A.
25- Saudi Medical Journal 1989, 10(6) : 508 – 511
Smoking habits of physicians in Riyadh , Saudi Arabia.
Saeed A, Taha A, Al-Shehri A.
The smoking habits of physicians in Riyadh city were studied as a first step towards surveying the smoking habit among health professional and then among the different sector of the community. The aim was to provide basic information on the causes and patterns of smoking as a prerequisite for designing an effective control programme since smoking has negative health , social and economic effects .
Of the 698 physicians who participated in the study 47% had smoked previously and 34% were current smokers ; 55% of male physician and 24% of female physicians had smoked previously but current smokers constituted 38% and 16% respectively. Half of the non-Saudi physicians and 37% of the Saudi physicians were previously smokers and 37% and 26% were currently smoking. The habit had been started by 60% of smokers while studying in the colleges of medicine or after graduation. About 60% tried seriously to quit smoking but only half of them were successful ; 80% of the smokers did not smoke at work. The majority of all physicians agreed that smoking is hazardous to health and they were concerned about it.
26- Soc Sci Med. 1988;27(3):287-9.Related Articles, Links
Self-medication among primary care patients in Farazdak Clinic in
Four hundred and thirty new adult patients were interviewed using a
questionnaire for their attitudes and practices regarding
self-medication. 69% of the patients were males and 40% were Saudis. 58%
of the patients attempted self-medication due to the triviality of their
symptoms or to save time and money. They used mostly analgesics,
vitamins, tonics and oral antibiotics. 41.6% of the patients did not
practice self-medication because of lack of information about the drugs
or for fear of complications. Self-medication was associated with
literacy and morbidity. Literate patients self-medicated significantly
more than illiterates. Patients who perceived their symptoms as minor
self-medicated significantly more than those who perceived them as
major. No association was found between self-medication and age, sex or
27-.J R Soc Health. 1987 Oct;107(5):187-8.Related Articles, Links
Smoking habits of students in College of Allied Medical Sciences,
Smoking habits of student in College of Allied Medical Sciences were studied using a self-administered questionnaire with 75% and 79% response rates for males and females respectively. About 47% and 12% of males and female students respectively were smokers. More than 90% of all smokers started the habit between 13 – 18 years of age. Cigarettes were the only form of tobacco used. Media constituted the most important source for information about the hazards of smoking in 75% , health personnel and schools were the source for 25% of the students. Religious and health concerns were the most important motives for not smoking among non-smokers. Heath hazards were the motives for attempting quitting in 83% of the smokers but the majority of smokers (95%) resumed smoking after cessation periods which lasted from few days to less than one year.
28- Saudi Medical Journal 1987, 8(1) ; 21 –26
Epidemiological profile and attitudes of primary care patients attending Farazdak clinic in Riyadh.
Dept. of Community Health Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences,
King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Epidemiological factors and attitudes relating to 148 new patients visiting the Farazdak primary care clinic in Riyadh were studied during a 2-month period. Of the 148 patients 78% were males; 50% were Yemenis and 35% were Saudis ; 65% of the patients were married and 30% were single and about 50% of all patients were unskilled laboureres. Abdominal pain and low back pain were the commonest presenting symptoms. Minor conditions of the musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal and respiratory systems constituted 90% of the diagnoses and this pattern was very similar to the to that seen in patients who attended the clinic during 1984. Distance was not a limiting factor in the utilization of the services and patients who viewed their conditions as serious or relatively serious kept their appointments. No significant association was found between attendance and non-attendance with respect to age, sex, education or travel distance. The majority of the patients were satisfied with the services provided but requested provision of drugs and investigations in the clinic itself .
29. Trop Geogr Med. 1984 Sep;36(3):267-72.Related Articles, Links
Utilization of primary health services in Port Sudan, Sudan.
The utilization of primary health services provided by two health
centres and a hospital out-patient department was studied. The
epidemiologic pattern was similar in the three health care facilities;
minor gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract and skin conditions
formed the majority of cases. Distance was a limiting factor for
utilization of health services in the health centres and not in the
hospital. The average consultation time per patient was two minutes.
Lack of drugs was the universal problem. Suggestions and recommendations
to solve some of the problems and improve services are presented.
30- Sudan Medical Journal 1984, 20: 39 –52.
Rural Residency course in the Faculty of Medicine , University of Gezira , Sudan.
The Faculty of Medicine, University of Gezira, Sudan is adopting an innovative, integrated, problem solving and community oriented curriculum with emphasis on rural health and primary care. The rural residency course is offered to expose the students to the realities of rural areas in Sudan. Through living in with doctors in rural areas they experience shouldering their responsibilities . The course proved to be very popular among students who achieved most of its objectives . The problems encountered in the course planning, implementation and students evaluation are presented. It is hoped that the course will help, with other courses, in preparing the students for performing their rural assuagements and duties properly and appropriately. The exchange of ideas from readers about the Faculty of Medicine and the rural residency course particularly is invited.
31-Centre for Research and Development News letter 1985, 1(2):7-9
Effect of distance on the utilization of Health Services, CAMS
( Review paper )
32-Al Hakeem 1971(8):1-4
( Review paper )