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تحميل الدليل التدريبي

أسئلة شائعة


 

                   COLLEGE OF APPLIED MEDICAL SCIENCES-

                   DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY HEALTH SCIENCES

COURSE  TITLE :  CHS  433  MATERNAL & CHILD CARE

COURSE INSTRUCTOR : DR. ABDALLA A.WAHID . EXT 504   

                                                                                        asaeed@37.COM

PREREQUISITES :  NON

COURSE DESCRIPTION :

The focus of the course is on the importance of mother and child and how they affect and be affected by family and community health heath status. Anatomy and physiology of reproduction, pregnancy, ante, intra and postnatal and child care principles and approaches will presented.

COURSE OBJECTIVES:

AT THE  SUCCESSFUL COMPLETION OF THE COURSE THE STUDENT IS EXPECTED TO BE ABLE TO :

1-DISCUSS THE IMPORTANCE OF MATERNAL AND CHILD SERVICES AND HIGHLIGHT THEIR SOCIOLOGICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS

2- KNOW THE BASIC ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLGY AND PATHOLGY OF REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS, PREGNANCY, DELIVERY AND  PUERPERIUM. 3- OUTLINE THE PRINCIPLES , COMPONENTS OF MCH SERVICES IN THE KINGDOMINCLUDING NUTRITIONAL ASPECTS .

4-      DISCUSS THE IMPORTANCE AND USES OF MCH INDICATORS –

5-      OUTLINE THE COMPONENTS OF CHILD HEALTH SERVICES   

                                                  TOPICAL WEEKLY OUTLINE

1-      INTRODUCTION – GLOSSARY OF MEDICAL TERMS- MCH INDICATORS

2-      ANATOMY OF FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS

3-      PHYSIOLOGY OF  FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS

4        & 5  CONCEPTION     AND  FOETAL DEVELOPMENT

6- COMPLICATIONS OF EARLY PREGANCY

7- PHYSIOLOGY OF NORMAL PREGNANCY

8- ANTENATAL CARE

9-      HEALTH COMPLICATIONS DURING PREGNANCY

10-  PHYSIOLOGY OF LABOUR

11-  ASSISTED LABOUR

12-  POSTNATAL CARE OF MOTHER AND CHILD

13-  THE NORMAL NEWBORN BABY

14-  PHYSIOLOGY OF PUERPERIUM

15-  CHILD GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

16-  FAMILY PLANNING

STUDENT EVALUATION :

1-      TWO SEMETER TEST  ( 20 % EAH)

2-      ONE WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT ON ONE ASPECT OF MATENAL AND CHILD NUTRITION(10%)

3-      FINAL EXAM ( 50%)

TEXTBOOKS :

1-MATERNITY CARE   BY : HEELEN FARRER , CHURCHILL LIVINGSTONE – LATEST EDITION

2-PRINCIPLES AND PRCTICE OF PRIMARY HEALTH CARE ( MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH CARE IN THE KINGDOM) – MINISTRY.  

 

 

NUTRITIONAL NEEDS DURING PREGNANCY

 

An expected mother needs  proper nutrition before and during pregnancy as poor nutrition may and usually have adverse effects on the child.

 

Diet prior to pregnancy:

Under nutrition during childhood and adolescence  stunts growth and can lead to smaller pelvis making labour hazardous.

Severe under nutrition reduces fertility. Women who get pregnant at less than 80% of standard weight deliver babies at younger gestational age, and lower birth weight. Obese women face several complications during pregnancy and labour such as hypertension, diabetes,  and complicated labour.

 

Diet During Pregnancy:

Poor maternal nutrition can lead to abortion, stillbirth, intrauterine growth retardation low birth weight, prematurity , perinatal mortality, congenital defects  Mother is prone to infections and pre-eclampsia.

 

Energy Requirements :

The mother gains about 15 – 16 kilograms during pregnancy including baby weight at term with an estimated total energy cost of 80 000 kilocalories making about 300 Kcal / day for the entire pregnancy ( about 250 days). Additional 300 Kcal/day are needed fro the second and third trimesters if women nutritional status at the beginning of pregnancy was within normal. Energy intakes below 36 Kcal per Kg body weight impair protein utilization in pregnancy.

 

Protein Requirements :

Additional allowance of protein is about 1.3 ,  6.1 ,  10.7  g / day during first, second and third trimesters respectively. ( an average increase of 6 g / day throughout pregnancy . In Saudi Arabia the amount is 8 g / day ( NPU  = 80%)

 

Vitamins :

The B vitamins are important ( Thiamine , Riboflavin, and Niacin for their role in energy production -  Pyridoxine (B6), and Folacin for protein synthesis , foetal growth and development- Folacin and Cyanocoblamine (B12) for RBC production).   Vitamine C for collagen formation. Vitamine D for non milk drinkers.

 

 

 

Minerals :

The key minerals are Calcium, Phosphorus for mother needs and for bone and teeth growth of fetus and proper clotting of blood ( Calcium).

 

Iron :

 

Pregnant women need about 540 mg of extra iron  intake of 30 mg per day.  

 

Sodium :

About 70 mg / day for increased needs because increased extra cellular fluid volume of mother , amniotic fluid , fetal requirements

 

NUTRITIONAL NEEDS DURING  LACTATION

 

Energy Requirements :

Human milk provides about 70 Kcal / 100 ml . Energy requirement depend on body weight and ranges  12-  - 100 kcal / day declining as age advances. Infants at 2 , 4 , 6 months need 780 , 880 , 1000 ml of milk daily. Mothers on  average produce 800 ml daily. Hence it is advisable to start supplementary feeding when the baby is 4 months old.. On average  women  additional allowance of 500 Kcal / day during lactation.

 

Protein Requirements :

 

On average additional protein requirements is 16 g / day during first six months, 12 g / day during second six months and 11 g / day after that . In Kingdom 16.9 g / day are recommended during lactation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RECOMMENDED DIETARY ALLOWANCES FOR SAUDI WOMEN

ITEM

NON PREGNANT

PREGNANT

LACTATING

ENERGY , (KCAL)

2100

2400

2600

PROTEIN, ( G.)

54

61

74 ( 1-6 months)

 69 ( 7 –12 months)

CALCIUM, (MG.)

800

1200

1200

IRON,( MG.)

18

30

30

VITAMIN  A ( UG)

800

1300

1200

THIAMIN , (MG)

1.1

1.5

1.6

RIBOFLAVIN (MG)

1.2

1.6

1.7

NIACIN (MG)

15

17

20

FOLATE (UG)

180

400

280

VITAMIN C (

30

60

60

 

 

NUTRITION IN INFANCY :

 

ENERGY:

On average 108 Kcal /day in the first six months , 98 Kcal /day during the second six months. The best way is to determine the needs individually according to weight and height gain.

 

Protein :

On average 2.2 g /day during the first six months and 1.50 g / day during the second six months

 

Fats:

A minimum of 3.8 g /day and a Maximum of 60 g / day . with Linoleic acid providing 3 % of the total calories because it is essential for growth and dermal integrity.

 

Carbohydrates :

Should provide 30  - 60 % of energy intake.

Water:

RDA is 1.5 / Kcal / day

 
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