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تحميل الدليل التدريبي

أسئلة شائعة


BCH 444 


Course Title:                         Immunochemistry

Credit Hours:                       2 (2+0)

Brief Course Description: Introduction and definition. Antibody structure- classes, monomer structure, polymeric forms, antigen combining site and biological functions. Antibody-antigen interactions- molecular basis, precipitin formation. Practical applications- quantitative precipitin test, rate nephlometry. Complement pathway of activation and complement fixation test. Theories of antibody diversity and synthesis. Immunity to infection. Autoimmunity.

 Detail Course Description:                        

Lecture No.



Introduction and some definitions. Self and non-self; Immune response (innate and adaptive);  components of immune response. Features of ‘non-self’. Tolerance, hypersensitivity, autoimmunity, antibodies, antigens. Primary and secondary immune response. Immunization (active and passive);


Antibody structure. Classes and sub-classes, types, common immunoglobulin monomer structure (IgG as example). Polymer structure: light chains; heavy chains; variable, hypervariable and constant region; Hinge region; Enzymatic cleavage of Ig monomer.

Conformation: Sequence homology between and within light and heavy chains; segmental flexibility; attachment of carbohydrate moiety; Immunoglobulin folding (domains); Biological functions of the five classes of Ig. Isotypic, allotypic and idiotypic variations.


Antigen-antibody interaction; chemical nature of antigens, immunogens, antigenic determinants, epitopes, haptens; attachment of haptens to carrier molecules. Specificity; Structural isomers and sterioisomers; Optimal size of antigenic determinant.

Forces stabilising the antibody-antigen complex. Affinity and measurement of affinity constant by equilibrium dialysis. Avidity and ‘bonus’ effect for multivalent antibody-antigen interaction. Cross reaction.

Precipitation of antigen with antisera. Quantitative precipitin test, equivalence point. Precipitation in gels; Ouchterlony double diffusion, single radial immunonodiffusion.

12- 14

Further practical applications; Immunochemistry; countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis; ‘rocket; electrophoresis; Laurell two dimensional variation. Radioactive binding techniques. Alloallergin sorbent test. Antigen determination; radioimmunoassay. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Immunofluorescence; direct and indirect tests; sandwich test; fluorescence labelling of of antibodies.

Agglutination test; Combs test; Monoclonal antibodies and their uses.


Theories of antibody synthesis; Clonal selection hypothesis. Some features of transcription and translation of light and heavy chains. Gene rearrangements. Mechanism of formation of different classes. Class switching. Theories of Antibody diversity; germ-line hypothesis, somatic recombination hypothesis, somatic hypermutation hypothesis, coparison and some features of these hypothesis.


Complement fixation; components of complement, function, classical and alternative pathway of activation. Role in phagocytosis; opsonic adherence; immune adherence; complement deficiencies; measurement of complement; complement fixation test.


Cells of the immune system: summary of myeloid and lymphoid tissues. Classification of cells, granular and non-granular leukocytes; brief description and functions of monocytes, neutrophils, esinophils, basophils and mast cells. Role of IgE in atopic allergy and anaphylaxis.

Lymphocytes: B- and T- lymphocyes. B-cells: surface phenomenon and biochemistry of transformation. T-cells: surface features and subpopulations. Lymphokines.


Immunity to infection; hypersensitivity; transplantation immunity: graft types, transplantation antigen and rejection, structure of human HLA antigens, immunosupression; autoimmunity: classification and mechanismof autoimmunity, detection of autoantibodies. Disorders of immune system.

 Lecture Schedule for First Semester 1428-29:

                 Sunday and Tuesday; 10-10.50 am

Final Examination date for First Semester 1428-29

                 Saturday, 17/1/1429; 8-10 am




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