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تحميل الدليل التدريبي

أسئلة شائعة


BCH 221


Course Title:    General Enzymology

Credit Hours:                       4 (2+2)

Lecture Schedule for First Semester, Academic Year 1428-29:

                 Saturday and Wednesday: 9.00- 9.50 am

 Final Examination Date for First Semester, Academic Year 1428-29:

                 Tuesday 13/1/1429; 8-11 am

Mark Distribution: 

Continuous Assessment:

1st CAT


2nd CAT




Final Exams:





Recommended Text Books:

1- Lehningers Principle of Biochemistry by Nelson DL and Cox MM

2- Biochemistry by Lehninger

3- Harper's Biochemistry by Murray RK, Mayes PA, Granner DK and Rodwell DK

Course Objective: To ensure that the students have a clear understanding of enzymes- their structure, functions, uses, specificity, classes, cofactors, coenzymes, inhibitors and the kinetics of enzyme action. With special emphasis on the factors effecting enzymic reactions. The gets a hand-on training by studying enzymes in the lab.

Brief Course Description: Review of protein structure and functions; enzyme classification and basic principles of enzyme reactions, kinetics; definition of enzyme assay, its constituents and their effect on the reaction rate; derivation of the rate equations for single substrate; inhibitors: types, their importance and their effects on enzymic reaction rate; specificity of enzymes; enzyme isolation and purification.

Detail Course Description: 

Lecture No.



Objectives of the course and brief history of enzymology. Enzymology; importance of enzymes for living systems. Defination of enzyme, substrate, cofactor, coenzyme, prosthetic group, activators, inhibitors, zymogens.


Enzyme specificity and the models of specificity [lock and key, induce fit and strained induced fit].


A brief review of enzyme (protein) structure. Classification of proteins (according to functions, composition and conformation)


Enzyme nomenclature and numbering system; Classification of enzymes


A chemical reaction progressive curve, definition of rate of reaction, measurement of the initial velocity. The units of enzyme activity, definition of enzyme specific activity; molecular and active center activity; International Unit of enzyme activity; Enzyme assay selection (reasons for selection, parameters and composition); Methods used to assay enzymes (spectrophotometry; fluorometry; manometry; radiotracer dilution and radio-immuno assay). Emphasis on NADH and FADH; their importance in enzymic coupled reactions.


Enzyme kinetics: (definition of chemical reaction kinetics, order of chemical reaction and the specific reaction rate constant; reaction equilibria, energy of chemical reaction, and the relationship between equilibrium constant and the standard free energy). The activation energy; catalyses versus uncatalysed reactions. The transition state chemical reaction. 


Effect of substrate concentration on the rate of enzymic reaction. The Henry-Brown theory of the enzyme-substrate complex [ES] formation. The equilibrium theory, and the derivation of the enzymic reaction rate equation. The steady state theory and the derivation of the enzymic reaction rate equation. The meaning of Km and its relation to Ks. The various derivations of the Michaelis –Menten equation according to Lineweaver-Burk, Wolf and Edie-Hofstee. The determination of Km and Vmax using mathematical and graphic methods (Michaelis –Menten, Lineweaver-Burk, Wolf and Edie-Hofstee graphs and equations)


Effect of enzyme concentration on the rate of enzymic reaction (upward and downward curvatures). Effect of pH, Temperature and ionic strength on the rate of enzymic reaction.


Inhibitors: importance of inhibitors as biochemical, medical and pharmacology and diagnostic tools and agricultural pesticides and insecticides. Effect of inhibitors on enzymes and on the rate of enzyme catalysed reactions. Reversible and non-reversible inhibitors and differentiation between them. The types of reversible inhibitors (competitive, non-competitive and uncompetitive). The derivation of enzymic rate equations in the presence of these inhibitors. Graphical presentation of inhibitors and the determination of Ki using graphical and mathematical methods.


Allosteric enzymes; cooperative effect. Comparison with enzymes that obey Michaelis-Menten Kinetics




Enzyme purification (definition and importance); Method of purifications.

 Recommended Text Books:

 BCH 221

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