New Page 4
An introduction to minor oral surgery,
diagnosis, treatment plans for oral surgical procedures, which are essential to
the general practitioner. The practical application of local anaesthesia and
the performance of simple extractions. The management of severe oral infection
including osteomyelitis and osteo-radionecrosis. The principles of diagnosing
and treating facial trauma which includes fractures of the mandible and the
middle third of the facial skeleton. The dental implications of the maxillary
sinus. Surgical aids to pathology with special reference to biopsy.
Introduction to tumors-benign and malignant, diagnosis and principles of
The student should be able to:
Apply what he had been instructed in the previous course [211 MDS].
Assess the patient, draw out a treatment plan and execute it by the help
of his instructor.
Give local anaesthesia: inferior dental block and infiltration
Perform simple extractions.
Identify the forceps and elevators used in extraction, how to hold and
apply them in practice.
Know the different types of emergency and how to manage it.
Assess impacted and unerupted teeth and how to treat it. How to design a
muco-periosteal flap and to remove bone.
Understand and treat dental infections e.g. periocoronitis, periapical
abscess and periodontal abscess.
Recognize and assess the different types of cysts. How to differentiate
and the outline of treatment.
Know antibiotics: Types, dose, mode of action, antibiotics use in oral
Know haemorrhage: Types, aetiology and outline of management
Apply the knowledge gained in the previous courses.
Diagnose and treat infections in and around the oral cavity including
incision and drainage of dental abscesses.
Diagnose and have the knowledge of how to treat facial fractures
including first aid procedures.
Understand the conservative and surgical management of antral disease of
odontogenic origin including recent and long-standing oro-antral fistulae.
Assist in the early diagnosis of oral malignancy by performing a biopsy
from suspected oral lesions. The student should also be able to liaise with the
oral pathologist to reach the correct diagnosis.
Emergency in oral surgery I
Emergency in oral surgery II
Dental infection I
Dental infection II
Dental infection III
Impacted and unerupted teeth I
Impacted and unerupted teeth II
Impacted and unerupted teeth III
Cysts of the jaws I
Cyst of the jaws II
Antibiotics and prescription
Haemorrhage in oral surgery
Maxillofacial injuries: Introduction
Fracture of the mandible
Fracture of the maxilla
Principles in the management of facial fractures
Complications in fracture management
Oro-facial infection I
Oro-facial infection II
Oro-facial infection III
Tumors of the jaws I
Tumors of the jaws II
Maxillary sinus in disease and trauma
Maxillary sinus in dentoalveolar surgery
27-28. Continuous Assessment Tests
ii. Clinical sessions:
This includes the management of patients: assessment of complaint,
relevant medical history, relevant dental history and clinical examination to
reach diagnosis. The students have to perform different techniques of local
anaesthesia, do simple extractions by the use of forceps and elevators.
Lecture topics in details [contents]:
1-2. Emergency in oral surgery: I &
Introduction: relevant medical
history – emergency kit, fainting [syncope, vaso-vagal shock], hypoglycaemic
coma and epilepsy.
Cardio-vascular emergencies: acute heart failure – myocardial
infarction, circulatory collapse, cardiac
and neurotic fit.
3-5. Dental infections I, II & III
- Minor Oral Surgery pp 232-249
Acute and chronic alveolar
abscess: definition, aetiology, pathology & bacteriology, signs and symptoms,
cellulitis, radiography, management, abscess incision and drainage.
Acute and chronic periodontal
abscess: definition, aetiology,
pathology, signs and symptoms, radiograph,
subgingival curettage and periodontal surgery.–MinorOralSurg
Pericoronitis: definition, age-incidence, aetiology, clinical
classification [acute, subacute and chronic pericoronitis], signs and
symptoms for each category, radiography, management including
history, clinical examination and treatment [general measures and local
measures], others [e.g.] fluctuation, incision & drainage, pus swab and
and sensitivity test and blood examination.
6-8. Impacted and unerupted teeth: I, II &
III - Minor Oral Sugery pp109-143
Definition, aetiology, local factors and general factors,
indication and contra-indication for removal, pre-operative assessment of
impacted lower third molar, upper canine, pre-molars and any other impacted
Radiographic interpretation, George Winter lines, access, position
and depth, root pattern, investing bone
texture, inferior dental
Surgical removal [mucoperiosteal flap] by different techniques:
split-bone technique, surgical burs and tooth
division, delivery of tooth, wound toilet and post-surgical instructions.
9-10. Cyst of the jaws: I & II
- Minor Oral Surgery pp 184-205
Definition, signs and symptoms,
radiographic appearance, odontogenic
cysts and non-odontogenic cyst, the treatment of
cysts by enucleation or marsupialization [techniques, indications and
contra-indications for each].
Odontogenic cysts: cyst of eruption, dentigerous cyst, lateral
periodontal cyst, primordial cyst, keratocyst
and radicular cyst.
incisive canal cyst, globulo-maxillary cyst, median cyst and
11. Antibiotics in oral surgery and
Minor Oral Surgery pp 249-258
Definition, bactericidal, bacteriostatic,
indications [preventive and
therapeutic], general management of
antibiotics, choice of AB, route
of administration, dose, duration and
side effects [toxicity,
hypersensitivity reaction and its signs
and symptoms, development of
resistant strains, disturbance of
bacterial flora of the gastro-intestinal
tract and oral flora]. Antibiotic drugs:
penicillin group, other antibiotics especially if patient is allergic to
penicillin, anti-fungal antibiotics. Prescription for adults and children
12. Haemorrhage in
oral surgery: [see reference textbook]
a. Haemorrhage in the normal patient;
during the operation [incision planning, haemostats to secure bleeding,
pressure, haemostatic agents, hypotensive anaesthesia and vaso-constrictors] and
post-operative haemorrhage [failure to control haemorrhage, factors restarting
haemorrhage and infection at the wound site]. Bleeding from the socket [causes
and how to treat] and haematoma formation.
b. Haemorrhagic disease:
Defect in coagulation [haemophilia, Christmas
disease, hypoprothrombinaemia] and its management, thrombocytopenia [idiopathic]
and treatment, abnormalities of the capillaries: purpura, Von Willebrand’s
disease, hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia and management, acute leukemia,
anticoagulant and surgery [heparin, warfarin, and dicoumarol], different tests
13. Apicectomy and periapical curettage: -
Minor Oral Surgery pp 315-327
Definition, factor governing the retention of a
pulpless tooth, indications and contra-indications to surgical endodontics,
pre-operative assessment, technique of apicectomy and periapical curettage,
surgical flap credentials, post-operative progress and focal sepsis.
14-18. Maxillofacial injuries: I, II, III, IV &
V [All # of the mandible]
[All # of the middle
third of facial skeleton]
Introduction, incidence, surgical
Fracture of the mandible: classification,
clinical examination [general
and local] signs and symptoms according to
the sites of fracture,
Management: first aid, soft tissue
laceration, food and fluid, sedation
and transportation. Definitive treatment to the
different sites of the
mandible fracture including, temporary
immobilization, and the
different methods for reduction and
immobilization [dental wiring,
transosseous wiring, arch bar, cap splint,
gunning-type splint, extra-
oral pin fixation, transfixation and bone
post-operative care including immediate,
intermediate and late care
fracture of the mandible in children
Fracture of the middle third of
the facial skeleton: classification [Le
Fort I, II, III], clinical signs and symptoms in
the various types of
fractures, zygomatic complex, isolated orbital
floor, fracture, nasal complex, Le Fort I, II &
Management, cerebrospinal fluid and rhinorrhea, radiography post-
operation care [immediate,
intermediate and late post-operation care.
Complications in fracture management [anaesthesia, scars, derangement of
the occlusion, non-union, TMJ
derangement, deformity of the mandible and infection], mal-union, gunshot-type
19-21. Oro-facial infection: I, II &
III [see reference textbook]
The spread of infection factors, different facial spaces and their
Spaces and potential spaces around the jaws: lower jaw [submental,
submandibular, sublingual, buccal, submasseteric, parotid, pterygomandibular and
Upper jaw [palatal, canine fossa and infratemporal]
signs and symptoms in each space infection and
management, peritonsillar abscess [quinsy], Ludwig’s angina, surgical drainage,
the use of heat in soft tissue abscess, sinus formation and cavernous sinus
22-23. Maxillary sinus in disease, trauma and
surgery: I & II – Minor Oral Surgery pp 207-221
Maxillary sinus anatomy, teeth relation, involvement during tooth
extraction, oro-antral communication [O.A.F.] newly created or chronic O.A.F.
and its management.
Radiography, root or tooth in the antrum removal, the use of nasal drops
and inhalations, surgical closure of O.A.F. [different techniques and their
indications], fracture of the maxillary tuborosity, involvement of maxillary
sinus in trauma and intra nasal antrostomy.
24-25. Tumors of the jaws: I & II – [see
Benign and malignant [osteoma, osteoblastoma, central hemangioma,
chondroma, chondro-sarcoma, fibro sarcoma, osteogenic sarcoma, Ewing’s tumor and
Rare bone tumors: traumatic neuroma, neurolemmoma [Schwannoma],
neuro-fibroma and pigmented neuroectodermal tumor of infancy, Complications and
management of tumors, Biopsy, types and
Didactic + clinical
Evaluation and Grades
Test No. Type of evaluation
Written 10 %
Clinical 20 %
Written 40 %
Maxillofacial Surgery: An Objective-Based Textbook
By Jonathan Pedlar and John W. Frame. (2001)
of the Facial Skeleton
By Peter Banks and Andrew
Contemporary Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
By Peterson, Ellis, Hupp,
Tucker. 4 edition (2003)