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Guidelines_English_Final
تحميل الدليل التدريبي

أسئلة شائعة


 

1. Hydatidiform mole   

    A. usually has female chromosomes

    B. arises from the amniom

    C. typically shows avascularity of the trophoblastic villi

    D. secretes luteinizing hormone

    E. shows trophoblastic proliferation

 

Hydatidiform moles  2.

    A. occur more commonly in women of blood group A married to blood group 0 men

    B. are commoner in older gravidaer

    C. are complicated by thyrotoxicosis

    D. are complicated by ovarian cysts

    E. less frequently cause malignancies if husband and wife's blood group is the same

 

    Uterine Fibroids 3.

    A. are more common in black patients

     B. are associated with nulliparity

    C. characteristically cause pain

    D. should be removed at Caesarean section if larger than 2 cm diameter

    E. undergo sarcomatous change in 1% of cases

 

4. Uterine Fibroids

    A. are primarily composed of fibrous tissue

    B. characteristically present with intermenstrual bleeding

    C. may be seen on a plain abdominal X-ray

     D. are associated with endometriosis

    E. have a capsule

 

5. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding is associated with

    A. chronic plevic inflammatory disease

    B. abnormal hormone profiles in more than 50% of patients

    C. incresed levels of PGE2 in the endometrium

    D. oestrogens inhibiting are arachidonic acid cascade

    E. metropathia haemorrhagica

 

6.The following have been shown to be effective in the treatment of dysfunctional uterine bleeding

    A. tranexamic acid

    B. methyl testosterone

    C. neostigmine bromide

    D. clomiphene

    E. epsilon amino caproic acid

 

7. Dermoid cysts

   A. are germ cell tumours

   B. are bilateral in 40-60% of cases

   C. are the commonest cysts detected during pregnancy

   D. are malignant in 10% of cases

   E. are frequently XY

 

8. Theca lutein cysts

   A. are bilateral

   B. develop in normal pregnancy

   C. may be iatrogenic

   D. excrete human chorionic gonadotrophin

   E. require surgical removal

 1.  A. True

    B. false

    C. true

    D. false

    E. true

 

2.  A. True

   B. true

   C. true

   D. true

   E. true

 

3.  A. True

    B. true

    C. false

    D. false

    E. false

 

  4.  A. True

   B. false

   C. true

   D. true

   E. false

 

5.  A. True

   B. false

   C. true

   D. false

   E. true

 

6.  A. True

   B. true

   C. false

   D. true

   E. true

 

7.  A. True

    B. false

    C. true

    D. false

    E. false

 

8.  A. True

    B. true

    C. true

    D. false

    E. false

Hydatidiform mole, in the majority of cases having a 1.

female chromosome complement, arises from the trophoblast

The pathological changes characteristically show trophoblastic

proliferation, hydropic degeneration of the villus and scantiness

of the blood vessels. Helpful in diagnosis it its secretion of human

chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) antigenically similar of luteinizing

hormone (LH).

 

Group A women married to Group O men have a ten times 2.

greater risk than A-A partnership. Group AB women have the

worst prognosis. More than 10% of patients have thyrotoxicosis

due to the production of molar thyrotrophin and 15% develop

bilateral theca-lutein cysts due to excessive HCG secretion.

3. Fibroids are more common in women of negro origin and

associated with nulliparity and infertility although less so in

black patients. Fibroids are often asymptomatic and do not cause

pain unles they twist, undergo malignant change or co-exist with

sepsis and endometrosis. Fibroids should not be removed at Caesarean

section because of the risk of haemorrhage. They undergo sarcomatous

change in less than 0.5% of cases.

 

4. Uterine fibroids or myomata consists of bundles of smooth muscle

which develop more fibrous tissue as they grow larger. They present

with menorrahgia, usually without dysmenorrhea but do not

characteristacally poduce intermenstrual bleeding. Large fibroids

may appear as soft tissue masses on X-ray and calcified fibroids are

readily visible. 60% of myomata occur in women with one or no

pregnancies. They do not have a true capsule.

5. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding is heavy uterine bleeding in the absence

of tumor, infection or pregnancy and by definition is not due to chronic sepsis.

It is unusual to find abnormal hormone profiles and although anovulation and

metropathia are well-defined pictures, they only occur in a small minority

of cases. Oestrogens enhance and progestogens inhibit the arachidonic

acid cascade which probably initiates menstruation.

6. 19-Nortestosterone derivatives (Norethisterone) are primarily used

as hormone therapy for dysfunctional uterin bleeding. Androgens have

been used successfully and the anti-fibrinoltics amino caproic acid and

tranexamic acid have been shown to be effective. Clomiphene, although

not ideal because of side effects, is also effective when they dysfunctional

uterine bleeding is anovulatory.

 

7. Ovarian teratomas are practically always XX. Dermoid cysts occur in

young women and are bilateral in 10-12% of cases. As they occur in

this age group they are common in pregnancy and the 'weight' of the

semi solid cyst encourages the formation of a pedicle and torsion. They

are malignant in less than 5% of cases.

 

8. Theca lutein cysts are large bilateral polycystic masses which rarley  

occur in normal pregnancy but frequently with trophoblastic disease due

to excess gonadotrophin secretion and with hyperstimulation with

gonadotrophins. They regress spontaneously and do not require surgical

removal. 

 
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