1. What is Psychology, and Why is it a science?
2. What is the definition of Intelligent behavior? And what are the three major components of intelligence?
3. What is the key distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation?
4. What is the main component of the Maslow’s Hierarchy?
5. In the Maslow’s Hierarchy, what are safety needs mean?
6. How do psychologists define and use the concept of personality?
7. What do the theories of Freud and his successors tell us about the structure and development of personality?
8. What are major aspects of trait, learning, biological and evolutionary, and humanistic approaches to personality?
9. How can we most accurately assess personality?
10. What are the major types of personality measures?
1. Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes. Because, Psychology attempts to explain, predict, modify, and ultimately improve the lives of people and the world in which they live, by using scientific methods.
2. Intelligence is the capacity to understand the world, think rationally, and use resources effectively when faced with challenges. Three major components of intelligence ;
· Problem-solving ability.
· Verbal abilities.
· Social competence.
3. Intrinsic motivation causes us to participate in an activity for our own enjoyment, rather than for any tangible reward that it will bring us.
In contrast, extrinsic motivation causes us to do something for a tangible reward.
4. Physiological needs, safety needs, love and belongingness, esteem, and self- actualization.
5. Safety needs that were people need a safe, secure environment in order to function effectively.
6. Personality refers to the relatively enduring characteristics that
· Differentiate one person from another
· Lead them to act in a consistent and predictable manner.
· Both in different situations and over extended periods of time.
7. Freud’s theory suggest that personality is composed of the id, the ego, and the superego.
· The id is the unorganized, inborn part of personality whose purpose is to immediately reduce tensions relating to hunger, sex, aggression, and other primitive impulses.
· The ego restrains instinctual energy in order to maintain the safety of individual and to help the person to be a member of society.
· The superego represents the rights and wrongs of society and consists of conscience and the ego-ideal.
8. 1. Trait approaches :
· Have tried to identify the most basic and relatively enduring dimensions along which people differ from one another-dimensions known as traits.
· There are three kinds of traits (cardinal, central, secondary).
· Factor analysis used to identify 16 traits and three dimensions (extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism).
2. Learning approaches:
· Concentrate on observable behavior.
· Personality is the sum of learned responses to the external environment.
· In contrast, cognitive-social approaches concentrate on the role of cognitions in determining personality.
· Attention to self-efficacy and reciprocal determinism in determining behavior.
3. Biological and evolutionary approaches:
· Focus on how personality are inherited.
· For example, studies of children’s temperament suggest that there is a distinction between inhibited and uninhibited children, which is reflected in differences both in biological reactivity and in shyness.
4. Humanistic approaches :
· Emphasize the basic goodness of people.
· They consider the core of personality in terms of a person’s ability to change and improve.
· Concept of the need for positive regard suggests that a universal requirement to be loved and respected underlies personality.
9. Self-report measures ask people about a sample range of their behaviors.
· These reports are used to infer the presence of particular personality characteristics.
10. The most commonly used self-report measure is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2(MMPI-2).
· MMPI-2 designed to differentiate people with specific sorts of psychological difficulties from normal individuals.