King Saud University
College of Medicine
Department of Paediatrics
INTRODUCTION TO PEDIATRIC COURSE
Welcome to the PEDIATRIC DEPARTMENT. Pediatrics: means: pedia (Gr. Pais, Paidos = child), trics (Gr. iatrike = medicine): that branch of medicine which is concerned about the child and its development and care and about the diseases of children and their treatments. In some countries “child health” or “child health and life” is substituted for (Pediatrics).
This course is designed to provide you with a good chance of building up your knowledge and clinical skills in pediatrics and to prepare you to function as a competent intern.
It is impossible to cover all topics in details in this course. However, emphasis is put on graduating general physicians who have enough basics in pediatrics.
The following is a concise outlook of the curriculum:
1.1 General Objectives:
To graduate a physician who:
1.1.1 is aware of the personal qualities and attitudes required by a physician caring for
children and their families e.g. empathy, concern, gentleness, etc.
1.1.2 has acquired adequate basic knowledge and skills in pediatrics which enable
him/her to proceed into subsequent general practice, speciality training or research activities.
1.2 Specific Objectives:
At the end of the course the student is expected to:
1.2.1 perform, record and interpret a full pediatric history.
1.2.2 carry out, record and interpret a complete physical examination in all pediatric age groups.
1.2.3 identify and solve common clinical problems in pediatrics by providing a provisional diagnosis and appropriate differential diagnosis.
1.2.4 recognize urgent and emergency situations in pediatrics and be able to outline an appropriate plan of action.
1.2.5 outline a general plan of investigations and management of common pediatric problems as they relate to Saudi Arabia.
1.2.6 demonstrate an understanding of how to use the laboratory to reach a diagnosis of common pediatric problems .
1.2.7 demonstrate knowledge of community problems related to child health.
1.2.8 demonstrate knowledge of preventive aspects of childhood health problems and to implement them.
1.2.9 recognize his limitations concerning management of pediatric patients and the need to consult and cooperate with others to provide optimum care.
1.2.10 interact with children and their parents or relatives in a gentle, emphatic and appropriate manner.
2. Instructional strategies:
2.1 Lectures and Tutorials
Series of lectures covering selected topics in pediatrics will be delivered to all students together during the whole course. Eight tutorials each will be given 4 times. Each time will include one major group (A, B, C, or D). Students are expected to come fully prepared for the tutorial sessions. The tutors were encouraged to distribute handouts to the students before the tutorials to help them prepare.
TOPIC CONTENTS OF THE COURSE
2.1.1 Development and behavior in pediatrics
§ Normal development
§ Developmental assessment
§ Developmental delay (excluding mental retardation)
- Normal versus abnormal
- Common behavioral problems (e.g., temper tantrum, attention seeking, etc.)
§ Bottle feeding
§ Normal nutritional needs
§ Protein-calorie malnutrition
§ Failure to thrive
§ Vitamin deficiency (e.g. Vit. D deficiency)
§ Normal newborn
§ Common disorders; respiratory distress, sepsis, others
§ Basics of inheritance
§ Approach to dysmorphic children
§ Examples of common syndromes e.g., Trisomy 21, 13, 18; Turner syndrome
2.1.5 Metabolic disorders
§ Presentation and detection
§ Approach to suspected metabolic diseases e.g., galactosemia, aminoacidopathies, organic academia, storage diseases
2.1.6 Allergy, Immunology and immunization
§ Basics of immunity
§ Common Allergic conditions
§ Common immune deficiency disorders
§ Active and passive immunization
2.1.7 Rheumatic and autoimmune disorders
§ Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
§ Systemic lupus erythematosus
§ Henoch-Schonlein purpura
§ Kawasaki syndrome
2.1.8 Infectious Diseases
§ Common infections:
Measles, chicken pox, rubella, scarlet fever, stomatitis, tonsillitis, otitis media, URI, sinusitis, infectious mononucleosis, cellulites, congenital infections, poliomyelitis, tetanus
§ Serious infections:
Meningitis, encephalitis, osteomyelitis, tuberculosis, brucellosis, malaria, leishmaniasis, HIV infection
2.1.9 Gastroenterology and hepatology
§ Acute and chronic diarrhea and constipation
§ Structural and functional disorders of the GI tract
§ Childhood liver diseases (infantile cholestasis, hepatitis, liver failure and metabolic liver disease)
2.1.10 Respiratory tract diseases
§ Disorders of the upper airway
§ Disorders of the lower airway
2.1.11 Congenital and acquired heart diseases
§ Common congenital defects
§ Rheumatic fever
§ Infective endocarditis
§ Heart failure
§ Common arrythmias in children
§ Common hematological problems (anemias)
§ Disorders of hemostasis
§ Pediatric malignancies
§ Side effects of chemotherapy
2.1.14 Diseases of urinary system
§ Nephrosis-nephritis-renal failure
§ UTI and obstructive uropathies
2.1.15 Fluid, electrolytes and acid base disturbances
§ Seizure disorders
§ Mental retardation and cerebral palsy
§ Neuromuscular disorders and hypotonia
2.1.17 Endocrine disorders
§ Thyroid, adrenal and bone mineralization disorders
§ Polydipsia, polyuria and blood sugar disorders
§ Disorders of growth and puberty
§ Neonatal skin rashes
§ Skin infections
§ Other common pediatric emergencies
§ Environmental hazards
2.2 Clinical Teaching:
2.2.1 Formal teaching
Two (2) bedside teaching sessions are conducted by a teaching staff each week. Usually cases are prepared by students who present it to the group for discussion to demonstrate the relevant historical data and physical findings. Activity takes place from 9:00 – 12:00 PM.
Students will be divided into 12 groups to be posted into different hospitals for them to swap posting at a certain time of the cycle.
2.2.2 ER, OPD, Nursery & Ward rotations
During rotations, students in each subgroup are divided into small groups of 3-5 students each. They rotate through: Ward, ER, OPD, or Nursery (level 1 and 2 only).
During the ward rotation, each student should follow 1-2 patients at a time. The student is expected to function as a “sub-intern” with direct involvement in patient care. They are expected to clerk patients, observe different aspects of inpatient care and share in the rounds with the team.
In OPD or Nursery sessions each subgroup is divided into 2, one half attends in the morning and the other in the afternoon.
In ER sessions each sub group is divided into 3, each will attend a 4 hours shift: 8-12, 12-4, and 4-8. The shifts should rotate in different sessions.
2.3 Attending the continuous medical education in the department.
(See attached schedule)
1. Students who are doing ward and those who are having clinical sessions, except those who are preparing cases, are required to attend the morning report at 8:00 in the Pediatric Seminar Room.
2. Each student should:
a) Wear white coat
b) Wear his / her I.D.
c) Bring his / her own equipment
d) Dress according to the dress code assigned by the college.
3. Evaluation of students
During each rotation, medical students will be evaluated by:
 Continuous Assessment Evaluation – which holds 40% of the total
marks and consists of:
(a) Attendance of all activities – 5 marks
(b) Presentation and discussion during clinical sessions – 4 marks
(c) Clerking of clinical cases (3) – 6 marks (on 2nd and 3rd clerking)
(d) Written examination (MCQs)* – 25 marks
 Final Examination – which holds 60% of the total marks and consists of:
(a) Written examination (MCQ)* - 40 marks
(b) OSCE - 20 marks
* Some MCQs are based on pictures.
§ Student who score ³ 60 marks out of 100 (total course mark) will pass the course.
§ Five (5) marks for attendance of lectures, clinical sessions, tutorials, ER, OPD, nursery and ward. 0.25 marks will be deducted for each absence from any of these sessions.
§ The absence from every form of activities (lectures, tutorials, clinical sessions, ER, OPD, ward, or nursery) will be accounted for. If the cumulative absence rate exceeds 20 activities, which is more than 25% of total course activities, a letter regarding the concerned student will be sent to the Vice Dean of Academic Affairs and the student will not be allowed to take the final examination.