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تحميل الدليل التدريبي

أسئلة شائعة


 

 

How Far The Staff Members in Riyadh Teachers College Master and Utilize The Educational Technology Competencies From Their Own Perspective

 

 

 

 

 

 

Prepared By

 

Dr. Saad Abdel Rahman El-Dayel

Assistant prof. Riyadh Teachers College

Department of Educational Technology

 

 

 

 

2004

 

 

ABSTRACT

 

    This study aims at investigating the extent to which the staff members in the teachers college in Riyadh have acquired some basic educational technology competencies in their work.

 

      For this reason, the researcher formulated the following questions:

 

1.     To what extent have the staff members in Al Riyadh Teachers College acquired the educational technology competencies that are specified in this study from their own perspective?

 

2.     How far  the staff members in Al Riyadh Teachers College utilize the educational technology competencies that are specified in this study  in their work from their own perspective?

 

 

3.     Are there any significant differences that can be attributed to qualifications differences among Al Riyadh Teachers College staff members with regard to the mastery level of the educational technology competencies specified in this study?

 

4.     Are there any significant differences that can be attributed to qualifications among  staff members in Al Riyadh Teachers College with regard to the extent to which they utilize the   educational technology competencies in their work?

 

 

To find answers to the above mentioned questions the researcher developed a questionnaire that included (51) educational technology competencies divided into( 6) main categories . After the validity and reliability of the questionnaire had been verified it was given to (150) staff members in Al Riyadh Teachers College  who were randomly chosen to represent different specialties , qualifications, nationalities , age groups and socio economic factors.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Data analysis revealed the following:  

 

1.     The staff members in Al Riyadh Teachers College possess high mastery level of (42) educational technology competencies, and middle level of( 7) competencies.

2.     The  staff members in Al Riyadh Teachers College have high utilization level of (10) competencies , middle utilization level of (17) competencies and low utilization level of (10) competencies.

 

3.     There are no significant differences that can be attributed to qualification among Al Riyadh Teachers College staff members with regard to mastery of educational technology competences.

 

 

4.     There are significant differences in favor of Ph.d holders with regard to utilizing educational technology in their work.

 

 

      In light of the above-mentioned results the researcher recommended doing some further research, and offering training programs in the field of educational technology to staff members in AlRiyadh Teachers College.

 

 

 

Introduction

 

     The government of Saudi Arabia pays close attention to preparing teachers of all educational levels who are capable of teaching the new generations to cope with global changes and achieve prosperity and progress. For this reason ,it established schools of education in almost all the Saudi universities as well as 18 teachers college that belong to the Ministry of Education. These colleges are  trying hard to train big numbers of prospective teachers in all subjects and help them acquire the necessary teaching competences. 

 

     Among the necessary competences that all teachers should acquire are that of educational technology to be able to design, implement, and evaluate instruction in a systematic way that can lead to developing all aspects of the educational process.

 

        A review  of literature shows an agreement among educators  that educational technology can totally enhance education in any society and therefore, teachers should acquire all the necessary skills required for utilizing educational technology and making it an integral part of schools and university curricula .Among Arab educators who have such a view point are : Abu Gaber (1987) , Al Sabah (1994), Shawalb (1978), and Salama (2001).

 

       In order for staff members in teachers college to help prospective teachers acquire these competencies  and utilize them effectively in teaching, the staff members themselves should have these competences and utilize them in their work .

 

    A great deal of reports that issued from the Saudi Arabian Ministry of Education  however, as well as researches have pointed out that the reality of educational technology competences among staff members  are not satisfactory .

 

    In addition, the researcher as a staff member  in Al Riyadh Teachers College, noticed that the majority of staff members are having a hard time in this respect.

 

 

Problem of The Study

 

     For the above mentioned  reasons the researcher tried to investigate the extent to which the members in the teachers college in Riyadh have acquired the basic educational technology competencies  and how far they utilize these competencies in their work.

 

The present study therefore, tries to answer the following questions:

 

1.     To what extent have the staff members in Al Riyadh Teachers College acquired the educational technology competencies that are specified in the present study from their own perspective?

 

2.     How far the staff members in Al Riyadh Teachers College utilize the educational technology competencies that are specified in the  study in their work?

 

3.     Are there any significant differences that can be attributed to qualifications differences among Al Riyadh Teachers College staff members with regard to the mastery level of the  educational technology competencies specified in this study?

 

4.     Are there any significant differences that can be attributed to qualifications  among  staff members in Al Riyadh Teachers College with regard to the extent to which they utilize the   educational technology competencies in their work?

 

 

Importance of The Study

 

     For answering the study questions this study presents a list of educational technology competencies that are to be acquired by staff members in teachers college .

 

       This list may help staff members assess their own needs in educational technology and develop their skills.

 

      It also helps researchers and decision makers in assessing staff  members educational technology competencies and taking the necessary measures to overcome any possible problems in this area.

 

    The study results might shade light on some facts of importance to everybody who is interested in this area of research, as well as to authorities wishing to enhance the educational process in teachers colleges.

 

 

 

      

Definition of Terms

 

 

1.     Educational technology competencies:

A group of abilities, skills, and attitudes that staff members in teacher colleges should acquire and utilize in the field of educational technology for designing ,implementing, and evaluating instruction in a way that maximizes the effectiveness of teaching and learning.

 

2.     Utilization level of instructional technology competencies:

How far the instructional technology competencies are utilized by the staff member in his work. This is represented as high, middle, low rates of utilization.

 

3.     Qualifications:

The highest certificate which the staff member has got .

 

4.     Educational experience:

The exact period which the staff member has spent in teaching in the teachers colleges.

 

 

 

Limitations of The Study 

 

 

·       This study was conducted on only staff members in the teachers college in Riyadh.

 

·       The data collected represents only the view point of the staff members in the teachers college in Riyadh regarding their own educational technology competencies.

 

 

 

Previous Studies

 

     The previous studies referred to in this research are divided into three categories:

 

1.     Foreign studies.

2.     Arab studies.

3.     Saudi studies.

 

 

Foreign Studies                            

 

1.     Clay,(1994) conducted a study which aimed at identifying the educational technology competences among 164 junior high school teachers who graduated in Bemidji university as well as 86 university staff members. The research used a questionnaire that included 33 competencies as specified by the International Association for Educational Technology.  The results indicated that the teachers' competencies were far behind the university staff expectations. The staff members competencies on the other hand ,were far behind the international standards.

 

2.     Speight,(1994)conducted a study to evaluate the educational technology competencies among138 teachers who studied in 9 different American universities. The results showed that the majority of teachers have acquired the necessary educational technology competencies. The teachers asserted the importance of their training programs and the necessity of achieving consistency   between the training programs in the American universities and the standards specified by the International Council for Teachers Training .

 

3.     Kim,(1993) conducted a study to investigate the extent to which the educational technology competencies are utilized by Korean teachers, and the importance of these competencies in enhancing the educational process in the Korean schools. In spite of the fact that the teachers appreciated the usefulness of educational technology in developing education, they haven't acquired the competencies and the majority of these teachers use only audio and video tapes in teaching.

 

 

4.     Clausen,(1992) tried to determine the American technology teachers' perception of the  necessary competences for success inside the classroom. A questionnaire that consisted of 109 items was sent to three groups of participants :   

 

·        Teacher trainers specialized in educational technology.

·        Teachers of educational technology.

·        Supervisors of educational technology.

 

          

 The participants agreed upon 12 educational technology   competencies and assured the importance of  such competencies for success inside the classroom.

 

 

 

 

 

Arab studies

 

       Al Sabah ,(1994)conducted a study on a sample of 309 male and female teachers in 28 public and private teachers colleges in Jordan. He used a questionnaire that consisted of 48 educational technology competencies grouped under four main sections: students personalities, planning, educational design, and evaluation.

 

The results of the study indicated the following:

 

1.     The teachers highly acquired 34 competencies,

2.     Utilize 9 competencies effectively ,

3.     17 competencies are of great importance to the teachers,

4.     29 competences are of middle importance to them,

5.     No significant differences attributed to gender existed with regard to acquiring and utilizing the competency,

6.     A significant positive correlation existed between acquiring the competency and utilizing it.

 

         

        Al Ghazawy& Al Tobagy(1991) conducted a study in Kuwait which aimed at identifying a list of teachers competencies in educational communication media which the teacher must acquire during his undergraduate training program .The sample consisted of 165 educational technology specialists in Kuwait The researcher used a questionnaire of 36 competencies specified under the following domains : (1) utilization , (2) design, (3) selection ,(4) production , (5) evaluation of educational communication media, (6)operation of educational equipments, (7) principles of perception, education and communication, (8) discipline, (9) services of educational communication unit, and (10)educational research in the field of educational communication.

 

The results of this study revealed the following:

 

1)          The utilization of educational communication media, the selection of media, and operating the equipments are the most important.

2)          Communication and systems, and educational research are the least important.

 

        The researcher referred these results to the fact that the more the competencies are related to the final objective i.e effective utilization of communication media, the more important they are. 

 

        Al Sharee(1996) conducted a study in the Arab Republic of Yemen to see how far the programs of preparing social studies teachers consider the educational and psychological principles of educational technology. The study sample included 22 teachers and 264 students in the Faculty of Education in Sanaa University. He used a questionnaire of 101 items representing  principles of educational technology that were divided into 7 main domains as follows : objectives, content, activities, evaluation methods, role of staff member, role of student and the learning environment .

 

The result showed the following :

 

1.     The educational and psychological principles of educational technology were considered only for a limited extent when designing teacher training programs .

 

2.     There were no significant differences that can be attributed to gender between the responses of staff members and the students'.

 

 

 

        Al Nagar (1997) studied the educational technology competencies of elementary school teachers in Jordan and their utilization of these competencies from their own perspective; considering the variables of stage, gender ,qualification,  and experience. His sample included 584 male and female teachers in Irbid region. He used a list of 70 competencies divided into three main domains :designing instruction,   educational communication media, and evaluation.

 

          The results revealed the following:

 

§        The teachers indicated that they acquire 62 high level competencies, 7 middle level competencies, and 1 low level competency.

 

§        The teachers indicated that they utilize 46 competencies to a big extent, 21 competencies to a middle extent ,and 3 competencies to a limited extent.

 

 

§        There were a positive significant differences between acquiring the competence and utilizing them.

 

§        There were no significant difference that can be attributed to stage, gender, or qualification with regard to acquiring the competencies.

 

 

§        There were significant differences that can be attributed to experience in favor of those who have long experience with regard to acquiring the competencies.   

  

 

Saudi studies

 

 

      Al Ghamdi (1990) conducted a study that aimed at developing competencies of teacher of Islamic studies. He used a list of 252 competencies  divided into two main domains : Islamic studies competencies and general teaching  competencies. The results indicated that there were significant differences among the teachers with regard to utilizing activities and teaching aids. The researcher designed a remedial program for developing some teaching competencies of teacher of Islamic studies in Saudi secondary schools.

 

           Nashwan & Al Shahwan (1990) tried to identify the educational competencies  of the student teacher in The Faculty of Education in King Saud University. The researcher could provide a new definition to the term "educational competencies" and identified 72 competencies  that can be grouped under 3 main domains: competencies related to meeting society needs, competencies of the teaching learning process, and competencies related to the teachers relationship with the training program.

 

 

 

Method and Procedures

 

 

     The present study aims at investigating the extent to which the staff members in Al Riyadh Teachers College have acquired the educational technology competencies from the staff members own perspective  and how far they utilize these competencies in their teaching.

 

The study also aims at investigating the effects of both qualifications and experience on acquiring and utilizing educational technology competencies.

 

       This part of the study describes the study sample, designing the tools of the study, procedures of the study, and statistical analysis.

 

         The following table illustrates the society from which the sample was chosen.

 

Table 1

 

 

Specialty

Ph.holders

Masters. holders

BA.holders

total

Computer science

4

2

25

31

Arabic studies

10

5

4

19

Islamic studies

8

3

 

11

Curricula& Methodology

16

7

3

26

English

6

10

9

25

Mathematics

15

6

8

29

Educational technology

4

4

3

11

Physical education

2

3

1

6

Biology

16

9

1

26

Chemistry

10

6

5

21

Physics

9

5

3

17

Art

2

3

5

10

Psychology

10

4

 

14

Social studies

5

4

 

9

Total

117

71

76

255

 

 

Sample

 

    

The study sample included 150 of the staff members who were randomly chosen. They represent 58.82% of the main society. Table 2 illustrates the study sample classified according to specialty  and qualifications.

                                       

 

 

 

Table 2

 

 

Specialty

Ph. holder

Below Ph.d level holder

Total

Computer science

4

17

21

Arabic studies

4

2

6

Islamic studies

4

3

7

Curricula& Methodology

8

5

13

English

3

12

15

Mathematics

9

9

18

Educational technology

4

4

8

Physical education

2

3

5

Social studies

2

2

4

Science

30

10

46

Total 

75

75

150

 

 

 

 

Tools of The Study

 

   

  By referring to some studies in the literature such as Yalin(1983),Al Sabah(1994), and Al Nagar(1997) the researcher could identify 83 educational technology. These were sent to a jury of specialists t in the teachers college and faculties of education in Saudi Arabia. Some changes took place and a final list of competencies of 51 items was concluded . These were divided into six main domains: Instructional design, methods of teaching, selecting media, using media, media resource contents, and evaluation.

      

       The tools included two main sections: (1)Mastery level of the competency acquired, and (2)Utilization level of the competency,.

The new list of competencies was then given to a jury of 17 specialists who asked for making some changes that were made later .This achieved the validity of the tools .As for reliability, Cronbakh Alpha formula was used and reliability rate was r = 0.94 for utilization. And r = 0.93for mastery.

 

 

Procedures of The Study

 

    For investigating the study problem the researcher made the following procedures:

 

1.     Identifying the problem of the study and the main questions.

2.     Designing the tools of the study.

3.     Distributing the tools among the participants.

4.     Collecting the responses and analyzing them.

 

 

 

Results

 

 

     The following table illustrates the results concerning the extent to which the participants have acquired the target educational technology competencies:

 

 

Table 3

 

 

No

Domain& Competencies

Means

SD

Rank

I

 Educational Design

 

 

 

8

-The staff members can design a plan for teaching the target instructional unit

2.80

0.46

1

10

-Designs tests for evaluating performance

2.79

0.48

2

4

-Identifies performance objectives

2.77

0.50

3

3

-Identifies general goals

2.76

0.47

4

6

-Specifies relevant instructional media

2.76

0.49

5

9

-Utilizes feedback for developing the syllabus

2.41

0.65

6

2

-Conducts content analysis

2.40

0.61

7

5

-Organizes content according to performance objectives

2.28

0.65

8

7

-Chooses varied activities for meeting individual differences

2.37

0.63

9

1

-Analyses learner characteristics

2.37

0.73

10

II

  Teaching Method

 

 

 

15

-Provides suitable reinforcement at suitable time

23.82

0.42

1

16

-Provides clear instructions with regard to the tasks required from learners

2.82

0.42

2

13

-Uses suitable ways for motivating learners

2.80

0.43

3

14

-Utilizes questions effectively throughout the lesson

2.80

0.44

4

18

-Encourages learners to express themselves freely

2.80

0.45

5

11

-Utilizes suitable methods for achieving objectives

2.79

0.47

6

12

-Applies elements of the communication process in the teaching process

2.38

0.65

7

17

-Trains learners in preparing reports and research papers

2.37

0.63

8

III

  Selection of educational media

 

 

 

22

-Considering safety when selecting media

2.77

0.48

1

21

-Uses the available resources

2.76

0.46

2

23

-Considers cost and effectiveness when purchasing or selecting media

2.73

0.48

3

19

-Selects media that suit objectives, content, and method of teaching

2.62

0.61

4

24

-Prepares a list of printed materials, and the equipments needed for instruction

2.62

0.55

5

20

-Involves learners in selecting media

2.15

0.68

6

IV

   Utilization of educational media

 

 

 

31

-Uses verbal and non-verbal communication skills for facilitating communication with learner

2.82

0.42

1

25

-Checks content of the media(teaching aid)before utilizing them

2.82

0.43

2

26

-Sets the scene for utilizing media

2.80

0.43

3

27

-Uses feedback after using media

2.80

0.44

4

33

-Uses over head projector

2.80

0.45

5

37

-Uses slide projector

2.79

0.47

6

38

-Uses data show projector

2.79

0.48

7

34

-Uses video films

2.77

0.48

8

35

Uses computer in teaching /learning

2.77

0.48

9

36

-Uses opaque projectors

2.76

0.46

10

30

-Uses computers as an educational source

2.73

0.48

11

29

-Plans for utilizing media showing how and when to be utilized

2.62

0.61

12

28

-Knows how to utilize the instructional materials effectively in the teaching process

2.38

0.65

13

32

-Uses the internet for obtaining educational information

2.37

0.63

14

V

Educational Resource Center

 

 

 

39

-Knows the available media in the educational resource center in his college

2.61

0.55

1

41

-Provides the educational resource center with necessary suggestion

2.59

0.57

2

42

-Makes the best use of the services of  the educational resource center

2.59

0.59

3

40

-Participates in developing the educational resource center

2.27

0.63

4

VI

      Evaluation

 

 

 

49

-Asks questions that stimulate thinking

2.79

0.46

1

48

-Uses formative and summative evaluation for developing education

2.76

0.45

2

47

-Applying self-evaluation

2.75

0.48

3

51

-Providing clear criteria for evaluation

2.69

0.51

4

46

-Uses feedback for modifying his methods

2.66

0.57

5

50

-Analyzes results of tests and uses hem to improve his performance

2.65

0.35

6

43

-Knows about the new trends in educational technology

2.60

0.58

7

45

-Designs various types of tests

2.55

0.50

8

44

-Considers learner characteristics when designing tests

2.54

0.62

9

 

From the above table one can notice the following:

 

1.     The staff members have achieved high mastery of 42 competencies(86.27%). These competencies include the six main domains of competencies.

 

2.     The staff members have achieved middle level mastery of 9 competencies in five domains: educational design(5competencies), methods of teaching(2competencies), selection of the media(one competency), utilization of media(2competencies), and educational resource centre(one competency).These competencies represent(13.71)of the total.

 

3.     In the educational design domain, the staff members have achieved high competency level of 7 out of 10 competencies (70%) and(13.73%of the overall competencies).

 

4.     In the methods of teaching domain, the staff members achieved high competency level in 6 out of 8 competencies (75%) and (11.76%) of the over all competencies. They also achieved middle competency level in 2 competencies (25%)and (3.92%of the overall competency) .

 

5.     In the selection of media domain , the staff members achieved high competency level in 5 out of 6 competencies (83.33%) and(9.80%of the overall competency level. They also  achieved middle competency level  in one competency (16.67)and 1.96% of the overall competencies.

 

6.     In the utilization of media medium , the staff members achieved high competency level in 12 out of 14 competencies (85.71%), i.e.23.51% of the overall competencies .They also  achieved middle competency level  in two competencies (14.29%), i.e.3.92% of the overall competencies.

 

7.     In the domain of educational resource center the staff members achieved high competency level in 3out of 4 competencies (75%), i.e.5.88%  of the overall competencies .They also  achieved middle competency level  in one competency (25%), i.e.1.96% of the overall competencies.

 

8.     In the evaluation domain, the staff members achieved high competency level in all the nine competencies included in the domain (100%), i.e 17.65%of the overall competencies.

 

 

Table 4

 

Means, Standard Deviation, and Ranks

 

 

 

Domains

Means

SD

Ranks

Educational design

Methods of teaching

Selecting Media

Utilizing Media

Educational Resources center

Evaluation

2.50

2.70

2.61

2.72

2.52

2.66

0.24

0.15

0.19

0.12

0.21

0.18

6

2

4

1

5

3

      

 

 

 From the above table one can notice that the utilization of media comes first, the methods of teaching comes second, the evaluation third, the selection of media comes fourth, the educational resource center fifth, where as educational design comes last. It can be noticed also that the means in all these aspects are very close to each other, as they range between 2.72 and 2.50.

 

 

Results related to the study second question:

 

      The second question of the study is:  How far the staff members in Al Riyadh Teachers College utilize the educational technology competencies from their own perspectives.

 

       To answer this question, the means , the standard deviation and ranks were calculated. Then, the competencies were arranged according to the means.

 

    The following table illustrates means, standard deviation, and ranks within each competency in descendant order.

  

Table 5

 

 

No

Domain& Competencies

Means

SD

Rank

I

       Educational Design

 

 

 

4

-Identifies performance objectives

2.65

0.56

1

8

-Plans for teaching the units included in the syllabus

2.64

0.59

2

7

-Chooses varied activities for meeting individual differences

2.60

0.56

3

3

-Identifies general goals for the target subject

2.58

0.57

4

2

-Conducts content analysis

2.50

0.59

5

10

-Prepares varied tests

2.44

0.65

6

9

-Uses feedback for developing the syllabus

2.38

0.65

7

6

-Identifies suitable means of communication for achieving objectives

2.37

0.64

8

5

-Organizes the content in a way that suits the sequence of the performance objectives

2.37

0.66

9

1

-Identifies learner characteristics

2.26

0.66

10

II

Methods of Teaching

 

 

 

15

-Uses reinforcement at the right time

2.382

0.42

1

16

-Provides clear illustrations for the tasks to be done by the learners

2.82

0.42

2

13

-Utilizes effective ways for motivating learners

2.80

0.43

3

14

-Utilizes questions effectively throughout the lesson

2.80

0.44

4

18

-Encourages learners to express their ideas freely

2.80

0.45

5

11

-Uses suitable techniques for achieving objectives

2.79

0.47

6

11

-Uses elements of effective communication in the learner process

2.38

0.65

7

12

-Trains learners in preparing reports and research papers

2.37

0.63

8

12

-Uses elements of effective communication in teaching

2.38

0.65

7

III

Selection of Media

 

 

 

19

-Selects media suitable for objectives, content and methods of teaching

2.67

0.54

1

7

-Chooses varied activities to meet individual differences among learners

2.60

0.56

3

3

-Identifies the general objectives of the target content

2.58

0.57

4

2

-Analyzes content

2.50

0.59

5

10

-Design varied tests

2.44

0.65

6

9

-Utilizes feedback in developing the content to be taught

2.38

0.65

7

6

-Identifies the suitable communication media for achieving objectives

2.37

0.64

8

5

-Organizes content in a way that suits the sequence of performance objectives

2.37

0.66

9

1

-Identifies learner characteristics

2.26

0.66

10

II

Methods Of Teaching

 

 

 

15

-Uses the right reinforcement at the right time

2.382

0.42

1

16

-Provides clear instructions concerning the tasks to be done by the learners

2.82

0.43

2

13

-Uses methods of  motivating learners

2.80

0.43

3

14

-Uses questions at all stages of the lessons

2.80

0.44

4

18

-Encourages learners to express their ideas freely

2.80

0.45

5

11

-Uses suitable methods for achieving objectives

2.79

0.47

6

12

-Utilizes elements of the communication process in the educational process

2.38

0.65

7

17

-Trains learners in preparing reports and researches

2.37

0.63

8

18

-Utilizes the elements of the communication process in the teaching process

2.35

0.64

8

III

 Selecting Educational Media ''teaching aids"

 

 

 

19

-Selects the educational media that are suitable for the content and the method of teaching

2.67

0.54

1

21

-Uses the available educational media in his environment

2.53

0.59

2

22

- Considers safety when selecting  the educational media

2.52

0.58

3

23

- Considers cost and effectiveness when selecting or purchasing media

2.40

0.76

4

24

-Prepares a list of printed materials and equipments required for teaching the syllabus

2.39

0.61

5

20

-Involves the learners in selecting the educational media

2.38

0.64

6

IV

   Utilizing Educational Media ''teaching aids''

 

 

 

31

-Utilizes verbal and nonverbal communication skills for facilitating communication

2.74

0.48

1

25

-Check the content of the educational media before using it in the classroom

2.73

0.51

2

33

-Uses OHP projector

2.64

0.55

3

37

-Uses slide projector

2.49

0.68

4

38

-Uses data show projector

2.41

0.67

5

36

-Uses opaque projector

2.38

0.63

6

34

-Uses video in the classroom

2.16

0.65

7

27

-Uses feedback after utilizing media

2.15

0.65

8

26

-Sets the scene for utilizing media

2.10

0.66

9

30

-Uses computers as educational sources

1.93

0.72

10

35

-Uses computers for administrative issues

1.92

0.72

11

28

-Describes how to utilize equipments effectively in teaching

1.90

0.74

12

29

-Plans for using educational media properly in education

1.90

0.74

13

32

-Using the internet for getting educational data

1.89

0.74

14

V

  Educational Resource Center

 

 

 

39

-Knows about all educational resources in the educational resource center in his college

2.52

0.58

1

41

-Provides the educational resources center with suggestions regarding the materials and equipments he needs

2.42

0.61

2

40

-Participates in developing the resources center in his college

2.39

0.61

3

VI

     Evaluation

 

 

 

49

-Asks questions that stimulate thinking and that measures learners' understanding

2.68

0.55

1

47

-Utilizes self- evaluation techniques

2.59

0.57

2

46

-Makes use of the feed back to modify his teaching

2.46

0.66

3

45

-Designs varied tests to measure learners' achievement

2.03

0.67

4

48

-Uses formative and summative evaluation for developing the learning/teaching process

2.02

0.67

5

50

-Analyzes results of tests and interprets them in such a way to develop performance

2.01

0.68

6

51

-Identifies clear criteria for evaluation in his syllabus plan

1.93

0.72

7

43

-Knows about the new trends in the field of educational technology

1.89

0.73

8

44

-Considers learner's characteristics when designing test items.

1.19

0.50

9

 

 

  From the above mentioned table one can come to the conclusion that:

 

 

 

1.     The staff members have high utilization level of 24 competencies, and middle utilization level of 17 competencies, and low utilization level of 10 competencies. These represent 47.06% (high utilization level), 33.33% (middle competencies), and 19.61% (low utilization level).

 

2.     In the domain of educational design, the staff  members have high utilization level of 6 competencies (60% of the total competencies  in the domain and 11.76% of the overall competencies) , and middle utilization level of 4 competencies(40% of the domain competencies and 7.84% of the overall competencies).

 

3.     In the Methods of teaching domain, the staff members have high utilization level of 4 out of 8 competencies ( 50% of the domain competencies and 7.84% of the overall competencies), and middle utilization level of the remaining domain competencies.

 

4.     In the selection of Media domain, the staff members have high utilization level of 4 out of 6 competencies (66.67% of the main domain competencies  and 7.84% of the overall competencies), and middle utilization level of 2competencies (33.33% of the main domain competencies  and 3.92% of the overall competencies).

 

5.     In the utilization  of Media domain the staff members have high utilization level of 14  competencies (35.710% of the main domain competencies  and 9.80% of the overall competencies), middle utilization level of competencies (28.57% of the main domain competencies  and 7.84% of the overall competencies),and low utilization level of 5  competencies (35.71% of the main domain competencies  and 9.80% of the overall competencies).

 

 

6.     In the Evaluation domain the staff members have high utilization level of 2 competencies (33.33% of the main domain competencies  and 5.88% of the overall competencies), low utilization level of 6 competencies (66.67% of the main domain competencies  and 11.67% of the overall competencies.

 

       The following table shows the means and the standard deviation of the staff members responses with regard to utilizing the educational technology competencies in the six domains included in this study.

 

 

 

 

 

Domains

Means

SD

Rank

Educational design

Methods of teaching

Selection of Media

Utilization of Media

Educational Resource centers

Evaluation

2.47

2.52

2.48

2.10

2.42

2.08

0.25

0.21

0.24

0.26

0.25

0.26

3

1

2

5

4

6

 

 

     In the above table one can notice that the means exceeded 2.40 in four domains which shows that the staff members have achieved high utilization level in domains of methods of teaching, selecting media, educational design, and educational resource centers. They have middle utilization level in the domain of utilization of media, and low utilization level in the domain of evaluation.

             

         T test was used to see if there were significant differences between the means of the sample responses.

This is indicated in table No 7 that follows:

 

 

 

Domains

Mastery level of competencies

Utilization level of competencies

NN

Correlation Coefficient

T ratio

Significance

Means

SD

Means

SD

Educational design

 

2.50

 

0.24

 

2.47

 

0.25

 

1149

 

0.89

17.077

0.00

Methods of teaching

2.70

0.15

2.52

0.21

1149

0.75

14.98

0.00

Selection of Media

2.61

0.19

2.48

0.24

149

0.79

16.77

0.00

Utilization of Media

2.72

0.12

2.10

0.26

1149

0.52

8.16

0.00

Educational Resource centers

2.52

0.21

2.42

0.25

1149

0.77

13.65

0.00

Evaluation

2.66

0.18

2.08

0.26

1149

0.52

9.16

0.00

 

 

 

       In the above table one can notice that there were significant differences between the means of the staff members responses regading the mastery level of competencies and the utilization of competencies in favour of the mastery level of competencies.This means that the staff members have higher level of mastery of competencies than utilizing them.

 

 

Results related to the study third question

 

      The study third  question was that if there were significant differences that can be attributed to to qualifications with regard to the mastery level of the educational technology competencies among staff members in the Teachers College in Riyadh

.

     For answering this question the t test was used to indicate the differences between means. The results showed that the qualifications have no effect on the staff members educational technology competencies .The following table illustrates these results.

 

 

 

Table 8

 

Group

N

Means

SD

T ratio

Significance

Ph.d holders

75

2.48

0.25

1.20

0.231

Holders of degrees less than Ph.d

75

2.48

0.26

-----

-----

 

 

 

 

Results related to question No. 4

 

The fourth question was about whether there were significant differences attributed to qualifications with regard to utilization of educational technology competencies from the part of staff members.

 

For answering this question the t test was used to identify differences in means . The results indicated that significant differences existed . This  is illustrated in table No.9 that follows

 

 

 

Table 9

 

Group

N

Means

SD

T ratio

Significance

Ph.d holders

75

2.44

0.26

2.14

0.34

Holders of degrees less than Ph.d

75

2.05

0.25

-----

-----

 

 

The above table shows clearly that there are significant differences in favour of Ph.d holders with regard to utilizing educational technology competencies.

 

 

Discussion of Results

 

1.     The results related to the first question of the study showed that the staff members in Riyadh Teachers College have acquired high level  of 42 competencies and middle mastery level of 9 competencies .The following is a detailed description of the results in the specified domains of competencies, in addition to some comments on them.

 

·        Educational design domain

The staff members acquired high mastery level of 7 out of 10 competencies and middle mastery level in 3 competencies . A possible reason for this result is that the staff members have been trained in educational design throughout their training program at all levels of their university studies, since educational design is a basic requirement for work in the university field.

 

·        Teaching Methods

In the domain of teaching methods we have 6 high level competencies and 2 middle level competencies .This is logical of course, as any staff member should have the skill of applying varied teaching techniques as an essential part of the teaching profession.

 

·        Selection of educational media

In this domain we have 5 high level competencies and only one middle level competency .This may be due to the fact that a staff member often specifies suitable teaching aids as an essential part of the educational design process.

 

·        Utilization of educational media

It isn't surprising in fact, that the staff members have acquired 12 high level competencies in this domain ,and two level competencies since the utilization is directly related to the selection of media competencies. They have been trained in these skills for a long time, and hence they have no major problems in this respect.

 

·        Educational Resource Center

The staff members showed high level competency in 3 out of 4 competencies . This might be due to the fact that a variety of resources are available for the staff members in the college and The Educational Technology Department often holds training workshops for staff members in how to select and utilize the available teaching aids.

 

·        Evaluation

The staff members showed high level competency in 9 of the domain's competencies. This is due to the fact that they often use them for assessing their students' performance. Also the Psychology Department in the Teachers College often offers training courses in arts of evaluation to all staff members. The college administration, in addition pays close attention to the evaluation process and keeps urging staff members to give it the due attention.

 

The results of this study regarding the mastery level of the educational technology competencies  are consistent with results of the other studies , particularly this of Al Nagar(1997) who asserted in his study that the elementary school teachers in Jordon have high level competency in 62 out of 70   educational technology competencies.

 

Yet the results differ from those of both Clay,1994and Kim1993.This is may be due to the fact that they used other tools prepared by international agencies. It could also be because of differences in participants characteristics .

 

2.     The results related to the study second question showed that the staff members have high utilization level of 24 educational technology competencies, middle utilization level of 17 competencies and low utilization level of 10 competencies.

   The following is a description of results related to the domains             of competencies utilization , followed by some comments:

                                                      

·        Educational Design

The staff members highly utilize 60%of the competencies in this domain, where as 40% are of middle utilization level . This can be referred to the fact that  the staff members often try to allow their students the best circumstances for learning , a fact that drives them to make the best use of the designed program.

 

·        Methods of Teaching

We have 4 high utilization  competencies and 4 middle utilization competencies which might be because of the differences in qualifications, experience , specialty among  staff members.

 

 

·        Selection of Media

Here , we have 4 high utilization level of competencies out of the six competencies in this domain. It seems that the staff members think of the necessity of these competencies in their work. Moreover, the university programs emphasize these competencies in in-service training.

 

·        Utilization of Media

We have 5 high utilization competencies, 4 middle utilization competencies, and 5 low utilization competencies. This result may shade light on the fact that the staff members do not utilize many educational technology competencies in this domain, especially those of utilizing computers and data show projectors .Some contributing factors might be the inability of the staff members to use computers effectively for educational purposes, as well as the lack  of computers in the teachers college.

 

·        Educational Resource Centers

The staff members utilize 50% of the competencies in this domain . this is a satisfactory result at any rate since the library has been  substituted recently  to be a learning resource center that includes audio visual materials in addition to printed materials. The staff members have not made the best use of it yet.

 

·        Evaluation

The staff members highly utilize 3 competencies out of 9 in this domain. This can be attributed to the fact that the staff members have the freedom to evaluate their students in the way they like. No restrictions of any kind are imposed on them. Moreover , 40% of the subjects are practical and so the students do not have regular tests. They are often tested orally or practically.

 

 

 

These results do not agree with results of other studies like those of Al Nagar (1997) , A l Sabagh (1994) and Kim (1993). This might be due to the differences of the educational stage and experience of the participants.

 

·        The results of t test showed that there were no significant differences attributed to qualifications with regard to acquiring the educational technology competencies . This may be due to the fact that the  regulations inside the Teachers College are applied on all the staff members regardless of their qualifications .All staff members are enrolled in the training programs that are held in the college.

 

·        The results showed that there were significant  differences in favour of Ph.d holders regarding the utilization of the educational technology competencies. Although all the staff members are subjects to the same regulations as mentioned previously , yet the Ph.d holders' long educational experience and the relatively older age might have given them more sense of responsibility and a tendency to perfect what they do.

 

 

Recommendations

 

  Based on the results of this study the researcher recommends the following:

 

1.     In-service training programs should be held in the fields of evaluation and the utilization of the most recent technology particularly the recent applications of computers in education.

 

 

2.     Further  research is needed particularly in the area of utilization of the recent technologies and their effect on students achievement and attitudes.

 

 

Appendix  1

 

 

 

      A questionnaire presented to the staff members in Al Riyadh Teachers College concerning the educational technology competencies

 

 

 

Dear, staff member

 

  The researcher is investigating the extent to which the staff members in Al Riyadh Teachers College  have acquired and utilized some basic educational technology competencies in their work.

 

 For this reason the researcher designed the following questionnaire. You are kindly invited to respond to each of the items included in the questionnaire indicating how far you have acquired and utilized each competency.

                         

Thank you for your cooperation

 

 

The researcher

Dr. Saad Abdel Rahman El-Dayel

Riyadh Teachers College

Department of Educational Technology

 

 

 

   Note: 

 Please indicate your qualifications, specialty and years of experience.

 

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