1. Length-Weight Relationships and Monthly Changes in Different Indices of Oreochromis niloticus. Pakistan J. of Science, 54, 1-2, 2002.


       Abstract:  The value of regression co-efficient (3.092) registered in the present study for the combined sexes showed that the cube law is applicable in Oreochromis niloticus species of fish. The value of correlation coefficient (r = 0.987) also showed a strong relation between the total length and gutted weight of the fish. The condition coefficient showed variation in deferent months being high from November to May and low in January, Jun, August and October. Hepatosomatic index and filling index follow the similar pattern of variations. The former ranges from 1.62 (July) to 2.79 (June) whereas latter has a maximum value in October (10.49) and minimum in August (6.27). Gonadosomatic index for male and female showed two troughs, one in the March (male-0.94, female-1.93) and second in September and October (male-0.16, 0.14 and female-1.41, 0.98).            


2. Monthly Innovation in Haematological Profile and Biochemical Composition of Liver and White Muscule of Oreochromis niloticus. Jeobiosis, 32, 105-112, 2005.


      Abstract: The glycogen levels in liver and muscle of O. niloticus were low during spawning period (July to September). The muscle protein was low and that of liver high from June to September, plasma protein being highest in May. Triglyceride was highest in February and falls gradually till September. The plasma glucose was high from July to November, whereas the plasma triglyceride and glycogen were low in these months. Haemoglobin, haematocrit values, erythrocytes and leucocytes counts showed considerable variations throughout.


3. Studies on Feeding Ecology of Sailfin Molly (Poecilla latipinna) Dwelling in Wadi Hannifah Stream, Ryiadh. Pakistan J. of Biological Science, 10(2), 335-341, 2007.

   Abstract: Feeding ecology of sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna), an introduced fish species, was studied. Food items recovered from the stomach of fishes exclusively indicated that it is a herbivorous fish. And according to data obtained there is not much difference in the type of food consumed by the fishes of different size groups. Frequency of occurrence of different food items in the diet of fishes of various sizes was high. The value of vacuity index also showed variation throughout the study period. The diet overlap index was high which shows the sharing of food items among the fishes of different size groups. The diet breadth index also showed variations among the fishes of various sizes and in different seasons.


4. Ethological Responses and  Haematological and Biochemical Profiles of Carp (Cyprinus caprio) Exposed to Trichlorofon. J. of Food Agriculture and Environment, 6 (3-4) 473-479, 2008.

    Abstract: Specimens of carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to different lethal and sublethal concentrations of trichlorfon showed restlessness, excess secretion of mucus, rapid body movements and difficulty in respiration. The LC50 values along with 95% fiducial lower and upper limit (in parentheses) for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, computed from a probit graph for tested fish were 26.65 (26.03-27.17), 23.40 (22.55-24.30), 20.92 (20.26-21.61) and finally 18.74 (18.18-19.30) mg/l, respectively. Haematological parameters studied showed that the erythrocytes count, haemoglobin concentrations and haematocrit values increased whereas leukocytes count dropped down after trichlorfon exposure. Values of erythrocytic indices like MCV, MCH and MCHC also changed. Differential counts showed that the trichlorfon causes lymphopenia, thrombopenia and neutrophilia in the toxicant exposed fish. Level of glycogen in muscles and liver of fish decreased significantly (p<0.05) while glucose level increased remarkably after pesticide treatment. A significant reduction in the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain tissue of the fish exposed to trichlorfon was registered.

5. A threatened Fish Species (Aphanius dispar) in Saudi Arabia, A case Study, Pakistan J. of Biological Science, 11(19), 2300-2307, 2008. 

        Abstract: The present study showed that the population density of a native fish (A. dispar) in the freshwater environments of Saudi Arabia is declining. It is concluded from the present investigations that A. dispar is not threatened by a single isolated factor, but instead faces numerous stressors that jeopardize multiple stages of their life cycle. Reduced availability of food, habitat degradation, chemical contamination, introduction of exotic species and exploitation have contributed to the decline of such native fish's abundance. Protecting fishes will help to protect aquatic biodiversity and in conservation of biological heritage of the country.2009

6. Tilapia Production, Market Report Production, Consumption Increase Despite Economic Downturn, Global Aquaculture Advocate, Septeember, 2009.

       Abstract :   Global production and consumption of tilapia continues to rise. In 2008, China remained the major producer, with gains by its Asian neighbors and parts of Latin America. The global economic downturn and rising production costs hurt some smaller producers. China consumed half its huge production and showed a trend toward greater consumption of value-added tilapia. In U.S. retail stores, tilapia is now the second best-selling fish. The tilapia industry is working to bring “greener” tilapia products with improved quality control to market.

7. Seasonal Variations and Community Structure of Plankton in Relation to Some Environmental Variables in Wadi Haneefah Stream, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Universita Di Salento                               Abstract: A study on the qualitative and quantitative variations of phytoplankton and zooplankton populations as well as physico-chemical condition of water at three different locations in Wadi Haneefah Stream was carried out. Water temperature fluctuated between 18.0°C and 32.0°C, while pH values ranged from 7.1 to 8.5. Dissolved oxygen concentration reached maximum in May. The contents of chloride, Alkalinity and sulphate were highest in July-August. It is found that most of the parameters studied (turbidity, conductivity, hardness, total nitrogen, total dissolved solids, phosphorus, BOD and COD) have high values in summer months (June – September). A total of 50 phytoplanktonic taxa representing the families Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Desmidiaceae and Bacillariophyceae were recorded during the present study. Among all, Bacillariophyceae was the dominating group. The population density of phytoplankton was more prominent in summer. Zooplankton community was represented mainly by Protista, Rotifera, and Crustacea. These zooplankton was peaked in July and trough in January. The effects of various physico-chemical quality parameters on the seasonal distribution and succession of planktonic organisms are also discussed..


8. Reproductive Biology of Sailfin Molly (Poecilia latipenna) in Wadi Haneefah Stream, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan J. Zoology, 42(2), 169-176. 2010

9. Aquatic Habitats in Africa, Elshabrawy and Alghanim.

          Abstract : Although, Africa has abundant freshwater resources, 14 countries are subject to water stress (1700 m3 or less per person per year) or water scarcity (1000 m3 or less per person per year), and another 11 countries are expected to join this list in the 2025. This chapter highlights the major aquatic habitats in Africa, including the main rivers, lakes, lagoons and wetlands. The economic importance and human interaction with the water of these aquatic habitats are discussed. A combination of climatic changes, human population growth, unsustainable resource use, and desertification is threatening the African ecosystems and ability to supply crucially needed natural resources to the people of Africa. Unfortunately, the human pressure on African ecosystems is expected to increase as populations grow, unless strategic actions are put in place for their conservation. National and international efforts are required to manage these Habitats.


10. Toxicity Bioassay of Lead Acetate and Effects of its Sublethal Exposure on Growth, Haematological Parameters and Reproduction in Clarias gariepinus, African Journal of Biotechnology, 10(53), 11039-11047, 2011.


           Abstract : The African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, was exposed to different concentrations of lead acetate for 96 h, and the value of LC50 for the exposure period was registered as 122 mg/L. The effects of sub-lethal exposure on growth, reproduction and haematological parameters were also investigated in C. gariepinus. Lead exposure at all concentrations reduced growth rate, and was inversely related to growth. There were significant effects of lead exposure on erythrocyte count, haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit values. Lead exposure time and dose increased the plasma glutamicoxaloacetic transaminase (PGOT) and plasma glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (PGPT) activity levels. No significant effect of lead acetate was noticed on fecundity and ovum size. Sperm motility was reduced in all concentrations of lead acetate after 4 weeks of exposure. The present investigation indicates that the lead acetate is less toxic to fish than other metals as the LC50 value is comparatively high.

11. Tilapia Aquaculture In Saudi Arabia, Global Aquaculture Advocate, March, 2011.


          Abstract : Saudi Arabia has a growing aquaculture industry that farms mainly tilapia, but also shrimp, grouper, sea bream, rabbit fish and mullet. Although aquaculture is a major source of supply for fresh fish, it has not grown fast enough to meet the country’s growing demand. The use of multitrophic systems containing tilapia and seaweed could improve both economic and environmental sustainability. Rearing tilapia in highly saline waters would open further potential for Saudi fish farmers.

12. Impact of nickel (Ni) on hematological parameters and behavioral changes in Cyprinus carpio (common carp), African Journal of Biotechnology, 10(63), 13860-13866, 2011.


            Abstract : The effect of nickel on hematological parameters and behaviour in Cyprinus carpio after a 96 h exposure to nickel test was investigated. Cyprinus carpio fingerlings were obtained from local fish hatchery. Morphometric characteristics of experimental fish were recorded. Fish of both sexes were stocked without discrimination. The fish were exposed to different concentrations (0, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 mg/l) of nickel sulphate using standard screening procedure. The mortality rate of the experimental fish was increased with increase in concentration of nickel. The 96 h median lethal concentration (96 h LC50) was 12.44 mg Ni/L using the logarithmic method with dose-mortality regression line y = 188.224x – 86.52. The dissolved oxygen concentration decreased with increase in the level of Ni. All the blood parameters (erythrocyte, leucocytes, hematocrit and hemoglobin count) decreased with increasing dose of nickel and become significantly lower (P < 0.05) at higher concentration when compared with the control. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were also lowered with concentration of toxicant when compared with the control. The results of the present study showed that a short-term exposures to high levels of nickel induced stress reactions in C. carpio. Some adaptive changes were observed; preparing the organism to an increased energy expense, whereas other changes showed a considerable immunosuppressive effect of stress. It was concluded that changes observed indicate that hematological parameters can be used as an indicator of Ni stress in C. carpio.


13. Effect of cobalt-supplemented diets on bioaccumulation, digestive enzyme activities and growth of Cyprinus carpio, Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry, 93, (5), 985–995, 2011.

        Abstract : Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of excess dietary cobalt (Co) on bioaccumulation, digestive enzyme activities, and growth in freshwater Cyprinus carpio. Four isonitrogenous diets (average crude protein: 35%) were formulated to prepare a control diet (T1) with no Co, and three Co-supplemented diets with 1 (T2), 1.5 (T3), or 2 (T4)% Co. The results showed that C. carpio fed with T3 diet showed maximal apparent protein digestibility, feed conversion, protein utilization, and growth. Protease and lipase activities were maximal in the fish group given T3 diet. Accumulation of Co in different soft and hard tissues of fish did not correlate with levels of Co in the diet. The concentration of Co in the water increased with dietary level, being at a disturbing adverse effect level at 2% dietary Co. Evidence indicates that an additional supply of dietary Co up to a  level of 1.5% is a viable option to augment growth of C. carpio, but at higher levels of Co it may be detrimental to fish health and the aquatic ecosystem.

14. Determination of organochlorine and nitrogen containing pesticide residues in Labeo rohita, Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry, 93, (10), 1851–1855, 2011.

            Abstract : Two different weight groups of farmed Labeo rohita were collected from fish hatchery, Satiana Road Faisalabad, Pakistan. Pesticide residues were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HPLC analysis showed that seven pesticide residues (-endosulfan, DDE, parathion methyl, isoproturon, atrazine, carbofuran, and deltamethrin) were detected in L. rohita in weight group W1.Six pesticide residues (-endosulfan, parathion methyl, isoproturon, atrazine, carbaryl, and carbofuran) were found in L. rohita weight group W2. The overall comparison between two weight groups of L. rohita showed that maximal concentration of pesticide residues were observed in underweight group W2 compared to W1 weight group.


15. Nipa (Distichlis palmeri): A perennial grain crop for saltwater irrigation. J. Arid Environment, 82, 60-70, 2012.

           Abstract : The perennial saltgrass nipa (Distichlis palmeri, Poaceae) is endemic to northern Gulf of California tidal marshes flooded with hypersaline (38e42 g L1) seawater. Nipa was a wild harvest staple of the Cocopah people of the Río Colorado delta. We investigated the physiology, anatomy, chromosome number, and agronomic potential of nipa as a global food crop. Nipa seeds had 60e93% germination on salinities ranging from 0 to 30 g L1. Relative Growth  rates (RGR) on both flooded and aerobic conditions remained above 4% d1 up to 30 g L1, about half the GR  on freshwater. Nipa grain (caryopses) had 7e8% protein, 8% sugar and 79% total digestible carbohydrates (mostly starch) and only 2% ash and 8% fiber, equal to conventional grains in apparent nutritional value. Shoots were low in ash and sodium, and compared favorably to alfalfa forage in protein, digestible carbohydrates and energy contents. Mature female stands in the Colorado River delta produced an estimated 1.25 t ha1 of grain, but over two years in the greenhouse only partial floweringwas observed. Nevertheless, D. palmeri appears to beworth developing as a perennial grain and forage crop, especially for salinized, flooded soils.

16. High-density growth and crude protein productivity of a thermotolerant Chlorella vulgaris: production kinetics and Thermodynamics, Aquaculture International, 20, 455-466, 2012.


            Abstract : Current study investigated the fermentative production of cell mass and crude protein using an axenic culture of the thermotolerant strain of Chlorella vulgaris grown mixotrophically in an illuminated 10-l glass bioreactor. The process was then upscaled to 1,000-l bioreactor. The organism supported maximum specific growth rate, crude protein volumetric productivity, and specific productivity of 1.2 day-1, 2.26 g l-1 day-1, and 0.76 g g-1 day-1, respectively, with urea as nitrogen source. Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy values for its formation were 74.3, 56. 2 kJ mol-1, and -59.1 J mol-1 K-1, respectively, in both reactors and corresponded to those of thermotolerant organisms. Algal biomass grown in 10-l bioreactor contained 0.52 ± 0.03, 12.6 ± 2.0, 60.0 ± 4.5, 0.4 ± 0.02, 4.5 ± 0.2, 12 ± 0.5, and 3.81 ± 0.5% carotenoids, carbohydrates, crude protein, DNA, RNA, lipids, and total chlorophyll, respectively. Dry biomass supported good growth of fish larvae comparable with that on commercial diet.

17. Effect of sodium cyanide on the activities of some oxidative enzymes and metabolites in Clarias gariepinus, African J. Biotechnology, 11(41) 9849-9855, 2012.


           Abstract : The present study was conducted to determine the effect of sodium cyanide on oxidative metabolism, alterations in the activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), behavior, respiratory rate and metabolites (lactic and pyruvic acid) of the fingerling of Clarias gariepinus. The fingerlings were exposed to a sublethal concentration (0.75 mgL-1) of sodium cyanide. Fish showed a gradual decrease in respiratory rate, increase in LDH and decrease in SDH levels, and lactic acid followed a similar trend with pyruvate in an eight-day trial. The changes in the levels of these enzyme activities may be as a result of impaired oxidative metabolism and cellular damage, which had effect on the release of these enzymes. Elevation in the level of lactic acid and decrease in pyruvic acid was due to shift from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism which resulted to a severe drop in the respiratory rate of the fish. It may be as a result of blockage of electron transfer from cytochrome-c oxidase to molecular oxygen which might lead to cellular hypoxia even in the presence of normal oxygenation of hemoglobin. Thus, inhibition of oxidative metabolism by sodium cyanide in C. garipenus was reconfirmed. Behavioral changes caused by sodium cyanide exposure in the fish were probably due to the combination of lactate acidosis with cytotoxic hypoxia, which might depress the central nervous system.

18. Phylogenetic Relatioship of Cultured an Wild Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala  Based on Muscles Proteins Profile in Different Weight Groups: A New Tool in Phylogenetic AAnalysis, International Journal of Food Properties, 15,949–960, 2012.

          Abstract : Genetic heterogeneity and polymorphism in muscle proteins present in the meat of wild and cultured Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala was performed using SDS–PAGE. Cultured L. rohita and C. mrigala possessed more proteins than those in the wild ones and were dependent on their weight. Un-weighed pair group method with arithmetic average cluster analysis delineated a 50% linkage distance. Fish weight dissimilarity coefficient ranged from 1.73 to 3.87 in eight clusters at 75% linkage distance. The overall grouping pattern of clusters corresponded well with principal co-ordinate analysis and confirmed overall patterns of genetic variability among these species. These results provide useful guidelines for conservation and characterization of fish genetic resources for mass rearing or marker assisted breeding.

19. Malathion toxicity in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus - A haemotological and biochemical study. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 7(4),  561-567, 2012.

           Abstract : Deliberate or accidental contamination of ponds by widely utilized organophophorous (OP) insecticides, such as malathion is a potential problem for aquaculture in tropical countries. The aim of the study was to investigate the toxic effects of malathion (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.50 and 2 mg L1) toxicity in the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus; 15.0 cm length and 50.0 g weight) by correlation of acute toxicity (LC50) studies with biochemical and hematological parameters. Tilapia were very sensitive to malathion (96 h LC50 2ppm). The LC50 for malathion (48 and 96 h) was 2.0 and 1.5 ppm,  respectively. The fish shows quick response to malathion. In comparison with controls, sublethal levels of these pesticides led to a significant decrease (P<0.05) in final body weight. The erythrocyte count, haematocrit value and haemoglobin content of Nile tilapia were Glycogen, and protein in fish muscle gradually decreased with increased pesticide concentrations. On the other hand, total production, net returns and profitability of reared fish decreased with increase in concentrations of pesticides.          

20. Acute toxicity and effects of sub-lethal malathion exposure on biochemical and haematological parameters of Oreochromis niloticus. Scientific Research and Essays 7(16), 1674-1680,  2012.


          Abstract : The specimens of Oreochromis niloticus were exposed to Malathion to determine the lethal concentration (LC50) value and effects of sub-lethal concentrations on haematological and biochemical parameters. The LC50 value was registered as 1.06 mg/l. Fishes exposed to sub-lethal concentrations (0.12, 0.23 and 0.46 mg/l) for 6 weeks revealed that the pesticide causes alterations in various blood parameters. Red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts, haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit values were decreased. Plasma glucose and cholesterol level was elevated whereas plasma protein was decreased in exposed fish. Alanine amino-trasferase (ALT) activity was increased in the fish exposed to Malathion.

21. Spatio-Temporal Distribution and Composition of Zooplankton in Wadi Hanifah Stream Riyadh (Saudi Arabia) and Abu Zabaal Lakes (Egypt). Pakistan J. Zoology, 44(3), 727-736, 2012.


          Abstract : Information of biological communities is important to assess the qualities of aquatic systems receiving wastewater. Zooplankton communities have a cosmopolitan distribution, short life cycle and high sensitivity to pollutants, which make them useful as biological indicators of the aquatic environment. In this study, the physicochemical variables and zooplankton community structure of two different aquatic habitats receiving municipal sewage in Egypt and Saudi Arabia were investigated. Average electrical conductivity was recorded as 8346 and 4398 μS/cm, respectively from Abu Zabaal lakes (AZ lakes) and Wadi Hanifah (WH streams). The highest concentration of total ammonia, nitrite, nitrate and orthophosphate were recorded in WH. A total of 43 and 19 taxa and species of zooplankton were recorded in AZ lakes and WH streams, respectively. The standing crops of total zooplankton were much higher in WH streams (av. 5325 Ind. L-1) as compared with AZ lakes (av. 5325 Ind. L-1). Rotifera dominated amongst the zooplankton in AZ lakes with a contribution of 67.2%, while protozoa was the abundant group at WH streams and contributed 78.9% of the total zooplankton density. Brachionus plicatilis and Synchaeta oblonga were the most abundant rotifer species at lakes, while Brachionus calyciflorus, Keratella cochlearis and Testudinella patina were abundant at streams. It is concluded that low / reduced in zooplankton diversity at Wadi Hanifah streams may be induced by sewage and others domestic pollutant discharged in it.

22. Chronic toxic effect of malathion on haemotological parameters in Oreochromis niloticus, African Journal of Agricultural Research, 7(23), 3459-3463, 2012.

     Abstract : Extensive use of organophophorous (OP) insecticides such as malathion is a potential problem for aquaculture in tropical countries. The objective of the present study was to investigate the chronic toxic effects of different concentrations of malathion (0, 0.25, 0.50 and 1.0 mg L1) on the haemotological parameters toxicity in the Nile tilapia. The chronic doses of malathion were given for 6 weeks to study haematological changes during exposure. Oreochromis niloticus were stocked having 15.0 cm length and 50.0 g weight. The erythrocyte count, haematocrit value and haemoglobin content of Nile tilapia were decreased with increasing concentrations of pesticides. Values of mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were also decreased with the exposure of malathion in all the groups during the study. There was a significant decrease in leukocyte count in the treated groups. Reduction in these hematological parameters was significantly low at sixth week of exposure.