أسم المقرر:   106 حين

 

أهداف المقرر: أعطى الطالب معلومات عامة عن علوم الحياة

 

المرجع:      

Campbell, N.A., Reece, J.B. and Mitchell (2006). Biology, Seventh edition or later. Addison Wesley Inc. New York.

توزيع الدرجات:    امتحان فصلي أول              15%

                    امتحان فصلي ثاني             15%

                    امتحان عملي و تقرير          20%

                    امتحان نهائي                   50%

 

Course:         Zoo 106

 

Objectives:   To provide students with basic concepts of general Biology

 

Text: Campbell, N.A., Reece, J.B. and Mitchell (2006). Biology, Seventh edition or later. Addison Wesley Inc. New York.

 

Grading:         First midterm exam                   15%

                         Second midterm exam              15%

                         Lab exam and reports              20%

                         Final exam                                 50%

 

 

Cell Types

 

Lecture 1

 

Page 105

:

A panoramic view of the cell

Prokaryotic cells & Prokaryotes

Page 106

:

Fig 7.4 structure of Prokaryotes

Page 108, 109

:

Figs. Only (7.7, 7.8)

Page 214

:

cytokinaesis in plant & Animal Binary

 

 

Fission (Fig. 12.8 a, b)

Page 215

:

Bacterial cell division. (Fig. 12.10)

Page 320

:

Viral genomes Fig 50 18.1 sizes

 

 

Types of genomes , Names of viruses

 

 

Capsids & Envelopes

 

 

Capsid : Structrane (capsomeres)

 

 

Viral envelopes : Origin, structure

 

 

Bacteriophages

Page 321

:

Why virus need host cells : = Ribosomes,  metabolic enzymes (Fig. 18.2)

 

 

 

Lecture 2

 

 

 

 

 

Page 322

:

Lytic cycle & virulent virus (Fig. 18.4)

Page 323

:

Lysogenic cycle & Temperatre virus Fig. 18.4

Page 324

:

Lysogenic cycle Fig. 18.5, structure of viral envelopes.

Page 325

:

Enveloped virus, Fig 18.6 DNA virus (Herpes)

Page 326

:

RNA virus Example HIV & Aids + Figure

Page 504

:

Function of prokaryotic cell wall (three Function)

 

 

The difference between prokaryotic cell wall & plant & Fungi

 

 

Gram stain

 

 

Fig. 27.4 pili

Page 505

:

Capsule & pili

 

 

Methods: The gram stain & structures

 

 

Many prokaryotes are motile. Flagellar action

Page 506

:

Fig. 27.5 Nucleoid region

 

 

Prokaryotes, nutrition groups:  photoautotrophs, Chemoautotrophs,  Photohetrotrophs, Chemoheterotrophs, Saprobs, Parasites

 

 

 

 

 

   Cell molecules

Lecture 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Elements, Compounds, 25 elements required for life

Page 24

:

Trace elements

Page 41

:

Solution, solvent, solute, aq. Solution

Page 42

:

Hydrophilic, hydrophobic

Page 44

:

pH scale + Fig.

Page 45

 

Buffers

Page 52

:

Isomers, Structural isomers

Page 53

:

Hydroxyl & carbonyl groups, alcohols aldehyde, ketone

Page 54

:

Table 4.1, carboxyl group

Page 55

:

Amino group + sulfhydryl+phosphate

 

:

Carbohydrate

Page 60

:

Carbohydrate

 

 

Monosaccharides Fig. 5.3

Page 61

:

Disaccharides    (Fig. 5.4 , 5.5)

 

 

 

Lecture 2

 

 

 

Page 62

:

Polysaccharides Storage poly Fig. 5.6

Page 63

:

Structural poly, Cellulose Fig. 5.7

Page 64

:

Bacteria digest cellulose,

Chitin (Figs. 5.8- 5.9)

Page 65

:

Lipid structure, bonds Fig. 5.10

Page 66

:

Triacylglycerol = trighyceride

 

 

Saturated,  unsaturated fatty acids Fig. 5.11

Page 67

:

Phospholipids, Structure, Behaviour toward water, Aggregates in water cell membrane (Figs. 5.12 + 5.13)

Page 68

:

Steroids + cholestrol

Page 68

:

Proteins : polypeptide, Amino acids, R group, (Fig. 5.15)

 

 

 

Lecture 3

 

 

 

Page 71

:

Four levels of protein structure

 

 

Primary structure + Fig. 5.18

Page 72

:

Change in primary structure and sickled RBC+ Fig.  5.19 Secondary structure

Page 73

:

The pleated sheet  Fig. 5.20

Page 73

:

Tertiary structure

 

 

Hydrophobic interaction

 

 

Disulfide bridges

Page 74

:

Fig. 5.22, Quaternary structure, Hemoglobian

Page 75

:

Denaturation, Fig. 5.23, Fig. 5. 24 Review

Page 76

:

Fig. 5.25, Nucleic acids

Page 77

:

DNA & RNA, Fig. 5.26, The nitrogen bases

Page 78

:

Fig. 5.27

Page 78, 79

:

Inheritance is based + Fig. 5.28

 

 

 

The Cell organelles

 

Lecture 1

 

 

 

Pages 130-135

:

Cell membrane from page

(A)  Membrane models Fig 8.1, 8.2 A & B

(B)  A membrane is a fluid mosaic of lipids

-What is a fluid Fig. 8.3

-Proteins movement Fig. 8.4

- What is mosaic Fig 8.5 

 

 

 

pages  107, 109, Page 111

:

Nucleus Fig 7.9, Structure & function of the following: a) Nuclear Membrane, b) Nuclear Pores

c) Nuclear Lamina, d) Chromatin, e) Nucleolus

Ribosomes build a cell’s protein (structure & function),   Fig 7.10

 

 

 

Lecture 2

 

 

 

page  111

 

The endomembrane system 

page 112

 

Two types of ER, the difference between SER & RER Fig 7.11

Page 112

 

Functions of SER, Rough ER & Synthesis of Glycoproteins, Transport vesicles

Page 113

 

Cell membrane, RER

page 113, 114

 

Structure of Function of Golgi apparatus  Fig. 7.12

 

 

 

Lecture 3

 

 

 

Page 114-115

 

Lysosomes are digestive Fig. 7.13 & 7.14

Pompe’s disease, Tay-sache disease, Fig 7.16 as a good review.

Page 117

 

Mitochondria structure & function & Fig. 7.17

 

Lecture 4

 

 

 

page 119

 

The cytoskeleton Fig. 7.21

page 120

 

Microtubules Table 7.2

page 121

 

Centrosomes & centriols Fig. 7.22

Page 121, 122

 

Cilia & Flagella Fig. 7.24 & 7.25

Page 123

 

Microfilaments  Fig. 7.27

 

 

Enzymes : (Chap 6)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Page (91 – 97) Figs. 6.9, 6.10, 6.12, 6.13, 6.14, 6.15, 6.16, 6.17

 

 

 

Lecture 1

 

 

 

page 91

 

Enzymes speed up metabolic reactions by lowering energy barriers (Fig 6.9 6.10)

 

page 92

 

Enzymes are substrate specific

page 93

 

The active site is an enz. Catalytic center Fig. 6.12

Pag 94, 95

 

A cell’s physical and chemical environment affects enzyme active, cofactor, Enzy inhibitors. (Fig. 6.13, 6.14,).

 

 

 

Lecture 2

 

 

Metabolic control often depend on allosteric.

Page 96

 

Feedback inhibition, coperativity (. Fig. 6. 15, 16) 

Page 97

 

The localization of Enz. Within a cell (, Fig. 6.17)

 

 

Energy production, cellular Respiration: (Chap 9)

 

Lecture 1

 

 

 

Page 147-148

 

Principles of Energy Harvest  

Page 148

 

Cell recycle the ATP they use for work. 

The NAD, NADH (Fig. 9.4)

Page 152

 

The Process of cellular Respiration   

Respiration involves glycolysis   (Fig 9.6).

page153

 

the krebs cycle, and Election transport an over views

Glycolysis harvests chemical energy oxidizing glucose to pyruvate Fig. 9.7).

 

 

 

Lecture 2

 

 

 

page 156

 

The kerbs cycle (Summary of krebs cycle chemosmosis Fig. 9.10

Page 156-157,158 159

 

The inner mitochondria, Electron Transport.

(Fig. 9.11 show only) Fig. 9.12, Fig. 9.13. Fig. 9.15, Fig. 9.16).

 

Page 162-163

 

chemosomosis 159) Fig. 9.11. Fermentation

(Fig. 9.17, 9.18, 9.19, 9.20).

             


 

6. How things get into and out of cells

 

Lecture 1

 

Page 130-135    “Membrane models have …”

the term; Amphipathic

Page 132                      Fluid mosaic model

Page 133                      “Membranes as Mosaics of structure & Function”

            Term; integral proteins, peripheral proteins,

“carbohydrates and cell to cell recognition”

            Figure 8.5

 

Lecture 2

 

Page 136                      “Permeability of the lipid Bilayer”

            “Transport proteins”

Page 137                      “Passive transport is diffusion …..”

            Terms; concentration gradient.

            Passive transport.

                                    “Osmosis is the passive transport….”

                                    Terms; hypertonic, isotonic.

Page 138                      Terms; osmosis, osmoregulation

Page 140                      The term; facilitated diffusion

e. g. gated channels

 

Lecture 3

 

Page 140-141.               The term; active transport

e. g. Sodium-Potassium pump, Figure 8.14

Page 142                      The term; membrane potential, co-transport

Page 143                      “Exocytosis & endocytosis…. “

Terms; Phagocytosis, pinocytosis.

Receptor-mediated endocytosis

(Case study: Familial hypercholesterolemia)

 

 

Chapter 12: The cell cycle

Chap. 13: Meiosis and sexual life cycles

 

 

Lecture 1

 

 

Page 207-208

Cell division distributes identical sets

(genome-somatic cells-gametes-chromatin-sister chromatids-centromere-mitosis-cytokinesis-meiosis)

 

Page 209

  The mitotic cell cycle fig. 12.4

 

 

Lecture 2

 

 

Page 210-212

The stages of mitotic cell division in an animal cell figs. 12.5 ,12.6a

Page 213

Cytokinesis divides fig. 12.8

Page 228-230

The human life cycle fig. 13.4a

(karyotype-homol.chrom-sex chrom.autosomes-gametes-haploid cell-

fertilizationor syngamy-zygote-diploid cell-meiosis)

 

 

Lecture 3

 

 

Page 231

Meiosis reduces chrom. Number fig. 13.5

Page 232-233

The stages of meiotic cell division (fig. 13.6)

Page 231 then p. 235 236

Mitosis and meiosis compared fig. 13.7 Fig. 13.9

Crossing over fig. 13.9

 

 

Chapter 14: Mendel and the gene idea

Chapter 15:  The chromosomal basis of inheritance

 

 

Lecture 1

 

 

Page 240

Character-trait-true-breeding-hybridization-monohybrid cross P generation-F1, F2 generations) By the law of segregation, the two

Page 241-242 

fig. 14.4 table 14.1

 

 

Lecture 2

 

 

Page 243-244

Some useful genetic vocabulary homozygous-heterozygous-phenotype-genotype, The testcross (Fig. 14.6)

Page 245

By the law of independent assortment, each pair . (and first paragraph in p. 246 and fig. 14.7b)

 

 

Lecture 3

 

 

 

Page 253

Genetic diseases (briefly) Recessively inherited disorders

Page 254

Cystic fibrosis, Tay-Sachs disease

Page 255

Sickle-cell disease, Dominantly inh. Disorders

Page 255

Huntington dis., Multifactorial disorders, heart disease, diabetes, cancer, alcoholism, schizophrenia and manic-depressive disorder.

Page 270

Sex-linked disorders in humans

Page 269

Color blindness

Page 270

Hemophilia

Page 272

Human disorders due to chromosomal aberr

Page 273

Down syndrome, klinefelter syndrome

Page 274

Cri du chat

Page 268

Sex chromosomes

Page 268-269

The chromosomal basis of sex varies with the organism (and fig. 15.8)

 

 

9.          Information codes and genes

 

Lecture 1

 

Page 281                      “Additional evidence that DNA is the genetic material of cell”

Page 281-283    “Watson & crick discovered……” 

Figure 16.3, 16.5 -16.6

Page 284-285    The term; semiconservative model

Figure 16.7-16.8 (للتوضيح فقط)

 

Lecture 2

 

Page 286-289    “A Large team of enzymes….”

The student should know briefly what is the meaning of the following: (Fig. 16.10, 16.12, 16.13, 16.15, 16.16)

DNA replication, Origins of replication, Replication fork

                                    DNA polymerase, Leading strand, Logging strand

DNA Ligase, Primer, Primase

                                    Helicase, Okazaki fragments

 

Page 296-298    “Transcription……….. (Fig. 17.2-17.4)

                                    What is transcription?

                                    What    is translation

                                    What mRNA & RNA Processing?

 “In the genetic code …….”

                                    The term; triplet code

                                    The term; template strand

 

Lecture 3

 

Page 298-299    “Cracking the code….”

Page 300-301                The student should know the following terms briefly).

-                      RNA Polymerase (Fig. 17.6, 7.7)

-                      Transcription Unit

-                      Transcription factor

 

 

Page 304                      “Translation is the RNA….”

                                    Terms; tRNA, Anticodon (Fig. 17.21, 22)

 

Page 306-310    “Ribosome”

                                    Terms; rRNA, P Site, A Site, E Site

Briefly what is initiation elongation and termination? (Fig. 17.14, 15, 16, 17, 19)

 

Lecture 4

                                   

Page 312-313    “Point mutation……….” Fig. (17, 21)

                                    The student should know what is ……..

-                      Point mutations

-                      Base-pair substitution

-                      Missense mutations

-                      Nonesense mutation

-                      Insertions

-                      Deletion

-                      Frameshift mutation

-                      Mutagens

 

Page 316          What is the gene Briefly the definition in page 316.  (Fig 17.23)

 

 

 

Radiation Biology

 

Page 24

Neutrons, protons, electrons atomic nucleus

Page 25           

Isotopes, radioactive isotopes

Page 30

Methods

Page 80

Methods

Page 281, 282  

Fig. 16.4 x-ray crystallography

 

 

 

Chemical signals in animals

 

Lecture 1

 

 

Page. 893

An introduction to regulatory systems

page 894,

The endocrine system and the nervous fig 45.1

page 895-896,

A variety of local regulators affect fig. 46.19

page 896,

Chemical signals bind to specific fig. 45.3,4

page 897,

Steroid hormones, thyroid fig. 45.5

 

 

Lecture 2

 

 

Page. 899,

The vertebrate endocrine fig. 45.6, tab. 45.1

Page 900

The hypothalamus and pituitary fig 45.7 a,b

Page. 900

Posterior pituitary hormones

Page 902

Anterior pituitary hormones

Page 902-903

The pineal gland is

 

 

Lecture 3

 

 

Page 903-904

Thyroid hormones function  figs. 45. 8,9

 

Page 904

Parathyroid hormone  fig. 45.10

Page 904-906

Endocrine tissues of the pancreas  fig. 45.11

 

 

Lecture 4

 

 

page 907-909

The adrenal medulla and  Fig. 45.15

Page 887

Nervous system and hormonal fig. 44.21 a,b

Page 910

Gonadal steroids regulate fig. 46.14

 

 

 

 

Nervous system

 

Lecture 1

 

 

Page 961

The nervous system is composed of neurons and supporting cells.

 

Structure of a vertebrate neuron, Fig. 48.2 P. 962

Page 963.

Functional organization of neuron (Sensory neurons, interneurons and Motor neurons). Reflex arc. Fig. 48.4

 

 

Lecture 2

 

 

Page 964

The nature of neural signals (Membrane potential)

Page 965

The action potential. Fig. 48.5 resting potential,

 

Depolarization, depolarization Fig. 48.7.

 

 

Lecture 3

 

 

Page 970

Chemical communication between cells.

Page 974-975

(Presynaptic cell & postsynaptic cell)

Page 971

Chemical synapse. Fig. 48.10 (Presynaptic membrane of postsynaptic membrane, synaptic vesicle, synaptic cleft, neurotransmitter). (Act, Epi, Noropi).

 

 

Lecture 4

 

 

Page 977

The nervous system of Vertebrate. & 978

Page 979.

CNS (brain & spinal cord) white matter, gray mater, central

Page 978

Canal, ventricle, cerebrospinal fluid.  Fig. 48.14 PNS (cranial nerves of spinal nerves. Fig. 48.15 parasympathetic div. sympathetic div. Fig. 48.16

Page 979-961

Stricture and function of the brain. (Forebrain, midbrain and hind brain briefly). (Fig. 48.17-48.19 only adult).

 

 

 

Reproductive System

(Chap 46) (Page 918-927) Figs. 46.8, 9,11 12, 13, 14, 15).

 

Lecture 1

 

 

 

page 918

 

Mammalian Reproduction

page 918-919-920

 

Human reproductive Male (Fig. 46.8)

page 920-921-922

 

Reproductive Anatomy Female  . (Fig. 46.9)

 

 

 

Lecture 2

 

 

 

Page 922.923-924

 

Spermatogenesis, oogenesis genesis

(Fig. 46.11, 12, 13) 

 

 

 

Lecture 3

 

 

 

 

 

A complex interplay of hormones regulate reproduction

page 925

 

The male pattern   (Fig. 46.14).

Page 925-926.

 

The Female pattern Menstrual cycle

Page 927

 

Menopause.  (Fig. 46.15.)